Removal of diazo dye from the aqueous phase by biosorption onto ball-milled maize cob (BMMC) biomass of Zea mays

Zvezdelina Lyubenova Yaneva, Nedyalka Valkanova Georgieva


The mechanism of Congo red (CR) biosorption by the agricultural waste material ball-milled maize cob (BMMC) biomass of Zea mays was studied by analyzing the effect of pH and biosorbent surface chemistry; the equilibrium and kinetic behavior of the sorbate/sorbent system were also investigated. Surface chemistry and morphology were characterized by potentiometric titration, pH of zero charge, FTIR analyses and digital microscopy (DM). The acidic and basic sites for the biomass were quantified as 3.68 and 5.25 mmol g–1, respectively; therefore, the surface of the biomass was basic. The analysis of dye equilibrium isotherm data was done using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson models. CR biosorption on the agricultural waste biomaterial was mainly limited by chemisorption and/or intraparticle diffusion. The studies revealed that CR removal involved electrostatic interactions between negatively charged dye SO3groups and positively charged adsorbent surfaces, H–bonding between the oxygen- and nitrogen-containing functional groups of CR and the BMMC surface and hydrophobic–hydrophobic interactions between the dye and sorbent hydrophobic parts. The maximum biosorption capacity of Zea mays biomass (q 4.83 mg g–1) occurred at pH 7.


Zea mays, Congo red, FTIR, biosorption, equilibrium, kinetics

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