Natural Radioactivity Levels and Estimation of Radiation Exposure in Agricultural Soils from Skopje City Region

Aleksandra Angjeleska, Elizabeta Dimitrieska-Stojkovic, Zehra Hajrulai-Musliu, Radmila Črčeva-Nikolovska, Boško Boškovski

Abstract


The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in 14 soil samples collected in the Skopje city surrounding, and to calculate the corresponding absorbed gamma dose rates. The radionuclides were measured applying a high purity Ge detector gamma-ray spectrometer with relative efficiency of 30 % at 1.33 MeV. The activity concentrations found in 14 soil samples varied in the range 24.1-41.9 Bq kg-1for 226Ra, 38.5-52.2 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, and 502-707 Bq kg-1 for40K. The mean radium equivalent (Raeq), for the area under investigation, was 143±16 Bq kg-1, while the outdoor radiation hazard index (Hex) was 0.39. The total absorbed dose rate due to three primordial radionuclides investigated lay in the range 55.3 - 79.0 nGy h-1 with mean value of 68.1±7.7 nGy h-1, yielding a total annual effective dose of (83.5±9.5) µSv y-1. The assessed radiological factors were lower than the recommended values, indicating low radiological health risk for the population living and working in the investigated area. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples were compared to the international values reported by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and previous studies on geographically close areas and some worldwide regions.

 


Keywords


natural radioactivity, soil, gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations, radiological risks

Full Text:

PDF

References


REFERENCES

United Nations Scientific Committe on the Effects of Atomic Radiations (UNSCEAR). Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Report of the General Assembly, United Nations, New York, 1998.

K. L. Bocock, Radionuclides in Terrestrial Eecosystems: A Review on the Distribution and Movement, Institute of Terrestrial Eecology, Merlewood Research Station, Cumbria, 1981.

M. Tzortzis, E. Svoukis, H. Tsetos, A Comprehensive study of natural gamma radioactivity levels and associated dose rates from surface soils in Cyprus, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 109 (3), 217–22 (2004). DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncq193

United Nations Scientific Committe on the Effects of Atomic Radiations, (UNSCEAR). Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Report of the General Assembly, United Nations, New York, 2000.

M. Iqbal, M. Tufail, S. M. Mirza, Measurement of natural radioactivity in marble found in Pakistan using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer, Technical Note, J. Environ. Radioact. 51 (2), 255–265 (2000). DOI: 10.1016/S0265-931X(00)00077-1

M. J. Anagnostakis, E. P. Hinis, S. E. Simopoulos, M. G. Angelopoulos, Natural radioactivity mapping of Greek surface soils, Environ. Int. 22 (sup 1), 3–8 (1996). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(96)00085-2

I. R. Ajayi, An evaluation of the equivalent dose due to natural radioactivity in the soil around the consolidated Tin mine in Baukuru-Jos, plateau state of Nigeria, Iran. J. Radiat. Res. 5 (4), 203-206 (2008).

M. A. Shender, Measurement of natural radioactivity levels in soil in Tripoli, Appl. Radiat. Isotopes. 48 (1), 147–148 (1997). DOI: 10.10.1016/S0969-8043(96)00065-6

S. A. M. Issa, Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 156 (1), 59-67 (2013). DOI: 10.1093/rpd/nct039

A. K. Ademola, A. K. Bello, A. C. Adejumobi, Determination of natural radioactivity and hazard in soil, samples in and around gold mining area in Itagunmodi, south-western Nigeria, J. Radiat. Res. Appl. Sci. 7, 249-255 (2014). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrras.2014.06.001

S. Singh, A. Rani, R. K. Mahajan, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples from some areas of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, India using gamma ray spectrometry, Radiat. Meas. 39, 431-439 (2005). DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2004.09.003

N. Akhtar, M. Tufail and M. Asraf, Natural environmental radioactivity and estimation of radiation exposure from saline soils, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech. 1 (4) 279-285 (2005). DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2012.21002

I. H. Saleh, Radioactivity of 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs and assessment of depleted uranium in soil of the Musandam Peninsula, Sultanate of Oman, Turkish J. Eng. Env. Sci. 36, 236-248 (2012). DOI: 10.3906/muh-1110-1

J. Beretka, P. J. Methew, Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, industrial wastes and by-products, Health Phys. 48, 87-95 (1985). DOI: 16.10.1097/00004032-198501000-00007

P. Kessaratikoon, S. Awaekachi, Natural radioactivity measurements in soil samples collected from municipal area of Hat Yai district in Songkhila province, Thailand, KMITL Sci. J. 8 (2) Section A, 52-58 (2008).

K. M. Thabayneh, M. M. Jazzar, Natural radioactivity levels and estimation of radiation exposure in environmental soil samples from Tulkarem Province-Palestine, Open Journal of Soil Science, 2, 7-16 (2012). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2012.21002

State statistical Office of Republic of Macedonia. Macedonia in figures 2013.

(www.stat.gov.mk/Publikacii/MK-Brojki_2013_a.pdf, retrieved 12.10.2015).

Z. Stojanovska, D. Nedelkovski, M. Ristova, Natural radioactivity, and human exposure by raw materials and end products from cement industry used as building materials, Radiat. Meas. 45, 969-972 (2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2010.06.023

A. Angjeleska, Lj. Angelovski, R. Uzunov, E. Dimitrieska-Stojković, B. Stojanovska-Dimzoska, Z. Hajrulai-Musliu, Lj. Arsov, Determination of the vertical distribution of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in samples of cultivated soil taken in the vicinity of certain cities on Republic of Macedonia, Agriculture&Forestry (Podgorica), 60 (3), 97-106 (2014). UDC 21.634.438(497.7), DOI: 10.17707/AgricultForest

A. Angjeleska, E. Dimitrieska-Stojkovic, Z. Hajrulai-Musliu, S. Bogoevski, B. Boskovski, B. Stojanovska-Dimzoska, R. Uzunov, Natural radioactivity of uncultivated soil from the surrounding of the city of Skopje, Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 17 (3), 1177-1184 (2016).

S. Dimovska, T. Stafilov, R. Šajn, M. Frontasyeva, Distribution of some natural and man-made radionuclides in soil from the city of Veles (Republic of Macedonia) and its environs, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 138 (2) 144-157 (2010). DOI: 10.1093/rdp/ncp238

S. Dimovska, T. Stafilov, R. Šajn, Radioactivity in soil from the city of Kavadarci (Republic of Macedonia) and its environs, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 148 (1) 107-120 (2011). DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncq601

International Atomic Energy Agency. Measurement of radionuclides in food and the environment, A guidebook, IAEA Technical Report 295, Vienna, Austria, 1989.

United Nations Scientific Committe on the Effects of Atomic Radiations (UNSCEAR). Sources, Effects and risks of ionizing radiation. Report of the General Assembly, United Nations, New York, 1982.

The International Commission in Radiological Protection, “Recommendations of the ICRM, Publication 60”, Pergamon Publication, Oxford, 1990.

H. El-Gamal, E. Sidique, M. El-Haddad, M. El-Azab Farid, Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiological hazards in granites of Mueilha area (South Eastern Desert, Egypt), Environ. Earth Sci. 77 (19), 691 (2018), DOI: 10.1007/s12665-018-7880-x.

United Nations Scientific Committe on the Effects of Atomic Radiations (UNSCEAR). Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Report of the General Assembly, United Nations, New York, 2008.

M. Papić, M. Vuković, I. Bikit, D. Mrđa, S. Forkapić, K. Bikit, Ð. Nikolić, Multi-criteria analysis of soil radioactivity in Čačak basin, Serbia, Rom. Journ. Phys. 59 (7-8), 846-861 (2014).

G. Pantelić, V. Vuletić, M. Eremić-Savković, Lj. Javorina, I. Tanasković, Radioecological monitoring in Serbia, Arhiv veterinarske medicine 2 (2), 59-69 (2009).

I. Bikit, J. Slivka, Lj. Conkić, M. Krmar, M. Vesković, N. Zikić-Todorović, E. Varga, S. Curcić, D. Mrdja, Radioactivity of the soil in Vojvodina (northern province of Serbia and Montenegro), J. Environ. Radioac. 78 (1), 11–19, (2005). DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.03.034

Lj. Janković Mandić, S. Dragović, Assessment of terrestrial gamma exposure to the population of Belgrade (Serbia), Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 140, 369-377 (2010), DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncq135.

G. Xhixha, M. Baldoncini, G. Bezzon, G. Buso, I. Callegari, T. Colonna, G. Fiorentini, G. Gjeta, M. Goga, E. Guastaldi, F. Hasani, F. Mantovani, L. Mou, C. Rossi-Alvarez, V. Strati, M. Xhixha-Kaçeli, A. Zanon, Assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) in soils from the Kuçova oilfield, Albania. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Environmental and Geological Science and Engineering (EG-’14), Salerno, Italy, 2000, pp. 154-160.

D. Cesar, E. Sokolović, J. Kovač, Radioactivity of soil in Croatia. In: Z. Franić, D. Kubelka, (Eds). Proceedings of 2nd Symposium of Croatian Radiation Protection Society, Zagreb, 1994, pp. 107-114.

K. S. Al-Mugren, Assessment of natural radioactivity level and radiation dose rate in some soil samples from historical area, Al-Rakkah, Saudi Arabia, Natural Science, 7, 238-247 (2015). DOI: 10.4236/ns.2015.75027

I. H. Saleh, Radioactivity of 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs and assessment of depleted uranium in soil of the Munsadam Peninsula, Sultatane of Oman, Turkish J. Env. Eng. Sci. 36, 236-248 (2012). DOI: 10.3906/muh-1110-1

F. Asgharizadeh, M. Ghannadi, A. B. Samani, M. Meftahi, M. Shalibayk, S. A. Sahafipour, E. S. Gooya, Natural radioactivity in surface soil samples from dwelling areas in Tehran city, Iran, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 156 (3), 376-382 (2013). DOI: 10.1093/rpd/nct067.

S. A. Mujahid, S. Hussain, Measurement of natural radioactivity from soil samples of Sind, Pakistan, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 145 (4), 351-355 (2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncq423

D. Otwoma, J. P. Patel, S. Bartilol, A. O. Mustapha, Estimation of annual effective dose and radiation hazards due to natural radionuclides in Mount Homa, southwest Kenya, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 158 (1), 79-86 (2014). DOI: 10.1093/rpd/nct031

N. Yildiz, B. Oto, Ş. Turhan, F. A. Uğur, E. Gören, Radionuclide determination, and radioactivity evaluation of surface soil samples collected along the Erçek Lake basin in eastern Anatolia, Turkey, J. Geochem. Explor. 146, 34-39 (2014). DOI: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.07.013

Ö. Kiliç, M. Belivermiş, S. Topçuoğlu, Y. Çotuk, M. Coşkun, A. Çayir, R. Küçer, Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment in surface soil samples from east and south of Marmara Region, Turkey, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 128 (3), 324-330 (2007).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncm400

M.A.M. Uosif, A.M.A. Mostafa, R. Elsaman, M. El-Sayed, Natural radioactivity levels and radiological hazards indices of chemical fertilizers commonly used in Upper Egypt, Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 7, 430-437 (2014).

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrras.2014.07.006




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20450/mjcce.2020.1904

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Aleksandra Angjeleska, Elizabeta Dimitrieska-Stojkovic, Zehra Hajrulai-Musliu, Radmila Črčeva-Nikolovska, Boško Boškovski

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.