Application of supercritical fluid extraction for separation of nutraceuticals and other phytochemicals from plant material

Miha Oman, Mojca Škerget, Zeljko Knez

Abstract


In present work a literature review of application of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for isolation of nutraceuticals and some other phytochemicals up to December of 2012 is presented. Manuscript provides knowledge of SFE processes and possible aplications of SFE for extraction of bioactive compounds which serve as nutraceuticals. Compounds are classified into groups based on their chemical nature (carotenoids, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds, essential oils, lipids and fatty acids, and alkaloids and other bioactive phytochemicals) and they are reviewed in tabular form along with plant material, from which they were extracted using supercritical fluids.

Keywords


Supercritical fluid extraction, nutraceuticals, phytochemical, plant material

Full Text:

PDF

References


L. Vazquez, C.F. Torres, T. Fornari, N. Grigelmo, F.J. Senorans, G. Reglero, Supercritical fluid extract ion of minor lipids from pretreated sunflower oil deodorizer distillates, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 108, 659–665 (2006).

H.W. Wang, Y.Q. Liu, S.L. Wei, Z.J. Yan, Application of response surface methodology to optimise supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from cyperus rotundus linn, Food Chem., 132, 582–587 (2012).

E.J. Beckman, Supercritical and near–critical co(2) in green chemical synthesis and processing, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 28, 121–191 (2004).

M.S. Diaz, E.A. Brignole, Modeling and optimization of supercritical fluid processes, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 47, 611–618 (2009).

Y.E. Gorbaty, G.V. Bondarenko, The physical state of supercritical fluids, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 14, 1–8 (1998).

C.G. Pereira, M.A.A. Meireles, Supercritical fluid extraction of bioactive compounds: Fundamentals, applications and economic perspectives, Food Bioprocess Tech., 3, 340–372 (2010).

E. Reverchon, I. De Marco, Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of natural matter, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 38, 146–166 (2006).]

R.M. Weathers, D.A. Beckholt, A.L. Lavella, N.D. Danielson, Comparison of acetals as in situ modifiers for the supercritical fluid extraction of beta– carotene from paprika with carbon dioxide, J. Liq. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 22, 241–252 (1999).

Q.Y. Lang, C.M. Wai, Supercritical fluid extraction in herbal and natural product studies – a practical review, Talanta, 53, 771–782 (2001).

E. Uquiche, E. Huerta, A. Sandoval, J.M. del Valle, Effect of boldo (peumus boldus m.) pretreatment on kinetics of supercritical co2 extraction of essential oil, J. Food Eng., 109, 230–237 (2012).

H. Sovova, R.P. Stateva, Supercritical fluid extraction from vegetable materials, Rev. Chem. Eng., 27, 79–156 (2011).

R.E.C. Wildman, Handbook of nutraceuticals and functional foods, second edition, Taylor & Francis, 2006.

I.W.G.o.t.E.o.C.P. Agents, W.H. Organization, I.A.f.R.o. Cancer, Carotenoids, IARC Pess, 1998.

F. Delgado–Vargas, A.R. Jimenez, O. Paredes–Lopez, Natural pigments: Carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains – characteristics, biosynthesis, processing, and stability, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 40, 173–289 (2000).

T. Baysal, S. Ersus, D.A.J. Starmans, Supercritical co2 extraction of beta–carotene and lycopene from tomato paste waste, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 48, 5507–5511 (2000).

P.F. Leal, M.E.M. Braga, D.N. Sato, J.E. Carvalho, M.O.M. Marques, M.A.A. Meireles, Functional properties of spice extracts obtained via supercritical fluid extraction, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 51, 2520–2525 (2003).

P. Palozza, N.I. Krinsky, Antioxidant effects of carotenoids invivo and invitro – an overview, Methods Enzymol., 213, 403–420 (1992).

P. Subra, S. Castellani, P. Jestin, A. Aoufi, Extraction of beta–carotene with supercritical fluids – experiments and modelling, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 12, 261–269 (1998).

I. Gamlieli–Bonshtein, E. Korin, S. Cohen, Selective separation of cis–trans geometrical isomers of beta–carotene via co2 supercritical fluid extraction, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 80, 169–174 (2002).

O. Doker, U. Salgin, I. Sanal, U. Mehmetoglu, A. Calimli, Modeling of extraction of beta–carotene from apricot bagasse using supercritical co2 in packed bed extractor, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 28, 11–19 (2004).

H.L.N. Lau, Y.M. Choo, A.N. Ma, C.H. Chuah, Selective extraction of palm carotene and vitamin e from fresh palm–pressed mesocarp fiber (elaeis guineensis) using supercritical co2, J. Food Eng., 84, 289–296 (2008).

G. Vasapollo, L. Longo, L. Rescio, L. Ciurlia, Innovative supercritical co2 extraction of lycopene from tomato in the presence of vegetable oil as co–solvent, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 29, 87–96 (2004).

S. Machmudah, A. Shotipruk, M. Goto, M. Sasaki, T. Hirose, Extraction of astaxanthin from haematococcus pluvialis using supercritical co2 and ethanol as entrainer, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 45, 3652–3657 (2006).

B. Nobre, F. Marcelo, R. Passos, L. Beirao, A. Palavra, L. Gouveia, R. Mendes, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of astaxanthin and other carotenoids from the microalga haematococcus pluvialis, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 223, 787–790 (2006).

J.L. Pan, H.M. Wang, C.Y. Chen, J.S. Chang, Extraction of astaxanthin from haematococcus pluvialis by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid with ethanol modifier, Eng. Life Sci., 12, 638–647 (2012).

L.Z. Wang, B. Yang, B.L. Yan, X.C. Yao, Supercritical fluid extraction of astaxanthin from haematococcus pluvialis and its antioxidant potential in sunflower oil, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg., 13, 120– 127 (2012).

R.L. Mendes, B.P. Nobre, M.T. Cardoso, A.P. Pereira, A.F. Palavra, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of compounds with pharmaceutical importance from microalgae, Inorg. Chim. Acta, 356, 328–334 (2003).

L.D. Kagliwal, S.C. Patil, A.S. Pol, R.S. Singhal, V.B. Patravale, Separation of bioactives from seabuckthorn seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction methodology through solubility parameter approach, Sep. Purif. Technol., 80, 533–540 (2011).

L.D. Kagliwal, A.S. Pol, S.C. Patil, R.S. Singhal, V.B. Patravale, Antioxidant–rich extract from dehydrated seabuckthorn berries by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, Food Bioprocess Tech., 5, 2768–2776 (2012).

M.K. Roh, M.S. Uddin, B.S. Chun, Extraction of fucoxanthin and polyphenol from undaria pinnatifida using supercritical carbon dioxide with co–solvent, Biotechnol. Bioproc. E., 13, 724–729 (2008).

Y.W. Hsu, C.F. Tsai, W.K. Chen, Y.C. Ho, F.J. Lu, Determination of lutein and zeaxanthin and antioxidant capacity of supercritical carbon dioxide extract from daylily (hemerocallis disticha), Food Chem., 129, 1813–1818 (2011).

J.M. Fernandez–Sevilla, F.G.A. Fernandez, E.M. Grima, Biotechnological production of lutein and its applications, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 86, 27–40 (2010).

Y.X. Gao, B. Nagy, X. Liu, B. Simandi, Q. Wang, Supercritical co2 extraction of lutein esters from marigold (tagetes erecta l.) enhanced by ultrasound, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 49, 345–350 (2009).

W. Palumpitag, P. Prasitchoke, M. Goto, A. Shotipruk, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of marigold lutein fatty acid esters: Effects of cosolvents and saponification conditions, Sep. Sci. Technol., 46, 605–610 (2011).

M.S. Gomez–Prieto, M.L. Ruiz del Castillo, G. Flores, G. Santa–Maria, G.P. Blanch, Application of chrastil’s model to the extraction insc–co2 of p– carotene and lutein in mentha spicata l, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 43, 32–36 (2007).

J.S. Seo, B.J. Burri, Z.J. Quan, T.R. Neidlinger, Extraction and chromatography of carotenoids from pumpkin, J. Chromatogr. A, 1073, 371–375 (2005).

J. Shi, C. Yi, X.Q. Ye, S. Xue, Y.M. Jiang, Y. Ma, D.H. Liu, Effects of supercritical co2 fluid parameters on chemical composition and yield of carotenoids extracted from pumpkin, Lwt–Food Sci. Technol., 43, 39–44 (2010).

H. Sovova, M. Sajfrtova, M. Bartlova, L. Opletal, Near–critical extraction of pigments and oleoresin from stinging nettle leaves, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 30, 213–224 (2004).

D. Ruen–ngam, A. Shotipruk, P. Pavasant, S. Machmudah, M. Goto, Selective extraction of lutein from alcohol treated chlorella vulgaris by supercritical co2, Chem. Eng. Technol., 35, 255–260 (2012).

S.M. Choudhari, R.S. Singhal, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of lycopene from mated cultures of blakeslea trispora nrrl 2895 and 2896, J. Food Eng., 89, 349–354 (2008).

L. Ciurlia, M. Bleve, L. Rescio, Supercritical carbon dioxide co–extraction of tomatoes (lycopersicum esculentum l.) and hazelnuts (corylus avellana l.): A new procedure in obtaining a source of natural lycopene, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 49, 338–344 (2009).

J. Shi, C. Yi, S.J. Xue, Y.M. Jiang, Y. Ma, D. Li, Effects of modifiers on the profile of lycopene extracted from tomato skins by supercritical co2, J. Food Eng., 93, 431–436 (2009).

C. Yi, J. Shi, S.J. Xue, Y.M. Jiang, D. Li, Effects of supercritical fluid extraction parameters on lycopene yield and antioxidant activity, Food Chem., 113, 1088–1094 (2009).

S. Machmudah, Zakaria, S. Winardi, M. Sasaki, M. Goto, N. Kusumoto, K. Hayakawa, Lycopene extraction from tomato peel by–product containing tomato seed using supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Food Eng., 108, 290–296 (2012).

J.A. Egydio, A.M. Moraes, P.T.V. Rosa, Supercritical fluid extraction of lycopene from tomato juice and characterization of its antioxidation activity, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 54, 159–164 (2010).

B.P. Nobre, A.F. Palavra, F.L.P. Pessoa, R.L. Mendes, Supercritical co2 extraction of trans–lycopene from portuguese tomato industrial waste, Food Chem., 116, 680–685 (2009).

L.S. Kassama, J. Shi, G.S. Mittal, Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of lycopene from tomato skin with central composite rotatable design model, Sep. Purif. Technol., 60, 278–284 (2008).

D. Montesano, F. Fallarino, L. Cossignani, A. Bosi, M.S. Simonetti, P. Puccetti, P. Damiani, Innovative extraction procedure for obtaining high pure lycopene from tomato, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 226, 327–335 (2008).

J. Pol, T. Hyotylainen, O. Ranta–Aho, M.L. Riekkola, Determination of lycopene in food by on–line sfe coupled to hplc using a single monolithic column for trapping and separation, J. Chromatogr. A, 1052, 25–31 (2004).

K.W. Kong, N.F. Rajab, K.N. Prasad, A. Ismail, M. Markom, C.P. Tan, Lycopene–rich fractions derived from pink guava by–product and their potential activity towards hydrogen peroxide–induced cellular and DNA damage, Food Chem., 123, 1142–1148 (2010).

F.S. Malaman, L.A.B. Moraes, C. West, N.J. Ferreira, A.L. Oliveira, Supercritical fluid extracts from the brazilian cherry (eugenia uniflora l.): Relationship between the extracted compounds and the characteristic flavour intensity of the fruit, Food Chem., 124, 85–92 (2011).

M. Ota, H. Watanabe, Y. Kato, M. Watanabe, Y. Sato, R.L. Smith, H. Inomata, Carotenoid production from chlorococcum littorale in photoautotrophic cultures with downstream supercritical fluid processing, J. Sep. Sci., 32, 2327–2335 (2009).

R. Tozzi, N. Mulinacci, K. Storlikken, I. Pasquali, F.F. Vincieri, R. Bettini, Supercritical extraction of carotenoids from rosa canina l. Hips and their formulation with beta–cyclodextrin, Aaps Pharmscitech, 9, 693–700 (2008).

X.A. Xu, J. Dong, X.F. Mu, L.P. Sun, Supercritical co2 extraction of oil, carotenoids, squalene and sterols from lotus (nelumbo nucifera gaertn) bee pollen, Food Bioprod. Process., 89, 47–52 (2011).

M. Takahashi, H. Watanabe, J. Kikkawa, M. Ota, M. Watanabe, Y. Sato, H. Inomata, N. Sato, Carotenoids extraction from japanese persimmon (hachiyakaki) peels by supercritical co2 with ethanol, Anal. Sci., 22, 1441–1447 (2006).

A. Ambrogi, D.A. Cardarelli, R. Eggers, Fractional extraction of paprika using supercritical carbon dioxide and on–line determination of carotenoids, J. Food Sci., 67, 3236–3241 (2002).

M. Careri, L. Furlattini, A. Mangia, M. Musci, E. Anklam, A. Theobald, C. von Holst, Supercritical fluid extraction for liquid chromatographic determination of carotenoids in spirulina pacifica algae: A chemometric approach, J. Chromatogr. A, 912, 61–71 (2001).

Y.C. Cho, J.H. Cheng, S.L. Hsu, S.E. Hong, T.M. Lee, C.M.J. Chang, Supercritical carbon dioxide anti–solvent precipitation of anti–oxidative zeaxanthin highly recovered by elution chromatography from nannochloropsis oculata, Sep. Purif. Technol., 78, 274–280 (2011).

B.C. Liau, S.E. Hong, L.P. Chang, C.T. Shen, Y.C. Li, Y.P. Wu, T.T. Jong, C.J. Shieh, S.L. Hsu, C.M.J. Chang, Separation of sight–protecting zeaxanthin from nannochloropsis oculata by using supercritical fluids extraction coupled with elution chromatography, Sep. Purif. Technol., 78, 1–8 (2011).

J.A. Mendiola, F.R. Marin, S.F. Hernandez, B.O. Arredondo, F.J. Senorans, E. Ibanez, G. Reglero, Characterization via liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and tandem mass spectrometry of supercritical fluid antioxidant extracts of spirulina platensis microalga, J. Sep. Sci., 28, 1031–1038 (2005).

M.G. Sajilata, M.V. Bule, P. Chavan, R.S. Singhal, M.Y. Kamat, Development of efficient supercritical carbon dioxide extraction methodology for zeaxanthin from dried biomass of paracoccus zeaxanthinifaciens, Sep. Purif. Technol., 71, 173–177 (2010).

A. Romo–Hualde, A.I. Yetano–Cunchillos, C. Gonzalez–Ferrero, M.J. Saiz–Abajo, C.J. Gonzalez– Navarro, Supercritical fluid extraction and microencapsulation of bioactive compounds from red pepper (capsicum annum l.) by–products, Food Chem., 133, 1045–1049 (2012).

R. Davarnejad, K.M. Kassim, A. Zainal, S.A. Sata, Supercritical fluid extraction of beta–carotenefrom crude palm oil using co(2), J. Food Eng., 89, 472–478 (2008).

J.L. Li, M. Zhang, T.S. Zheng, The in vitro antioxidant activity of lotus germ oil from supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction, Food Chem., 115, 939–944 (2009).

I.S. Sanal, A. Guvenc, U. Salgin, U. Mehmetoglu, A. Calimli, Recycling of apricot pomace by supercritical co2 extraction, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 32, 221–230 (2004).

S.J. Sarrade, G.M. Rios, M. Carles, Supercritical co2 extraction coupled with nanofiltration separation – applications to natural products, Sep. Purif. Technol., 14, 19–25 (1998).

A.N. Mustapa, Z.A. Manan, C.Y.M. Azizi, W.B. Setianto, A.K.M. Omar, Extraction of beta–carotenes from palm oil mesocarp using sub–critical r134a, Food Chem., 125, 262–267 (2011).

F. Ladislav, P. Vera, S. Karel, V. Karel, Reliability of carotenoid analyses: A review, Current Analytical Chemistry, 1, 93–102 (2005).

A.R.B. de Quiros, H.S. Costa, Analysis of carotenoids in vegetable and plasma samples: A review, J. Food Compos. Anal., 19, 97–111 (2006).

A.I.O. Barba, M.C. Hurtado, M.C.S. Mata, V.F. Ruiz, M.L.S. de Tejada, Application of a uv–vis detection–hplc method for a rapid determination of lycopene and beta–carotene in vegetables, Food Chem., 95, 328–336 (2006).

P. Bhosale, P.S. Bernstein, Microbial xanthophylls, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 68, 445–455 (2005).

R. Edge, D.J. McGarvey, T.G. Truscott, The carotenoids as anti–oxidants – a review, J. Photoch. Photobio. B, 41, 189–200 (1997).

Z.Y. Wu, S.M. Wu, X.M. Shi, Supercritical fluid extraction and determination of lutein in heterotrophically cultivated chlorella pyrenoidosa, J. Food Process Eng., 30, 174–185 (2007).

M. Guerin, M.E. Huntley, M. Olaizola, Haematococcus astaxanthin: Applications for human health and nutrition, Trends Biotechnol., 21, 210–216 (2003).

R.G. Fassett, J.S. Coombes, Astaxanthin: A potential therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease, Mar. Drugs, 9, 447–465 (2011).

L. Felix–Valenzuela, I. Higuera–Ciapara, F. Goycoolea– Valencia, W. Arguelles–Monal, Supercritical co2/ethanol extraction of astaxanthin from blue crab (callinectes sapidus) shell waste, J. Food Process Eng., 24, 101–112 (2001).

M. Lopez, L. Arce, J. Garrido, A. Rios, M. Valcarcel, Selective extraction of astaxanthin from crustaceans by use of supercritical carbon dioxide, Talanta, 64, 726–731 (2004).

S. Machmudah, Y. Kawahito, M. Sasaki, M. Goto, Supercritical co2 extraction of rosehip seed oil: Fatty acids composition and process optimization, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 41, 421–428 (2007).

C. Quan, C. Turner, Extraction of astaxanthin from shrimp waste using pressurized hot ethanol, Chromatographia, 70, 247–251 (2009).

A. Kulomaa, H. Siren, M.L. Riekkola, Identification of antioxidative compounds in plant beverages by capillary electrophoresis with the marker index technique, J. Chromatogr. A, 781, 523–532 (1997).

J. Peterson, J. Dwyer, Flavonoids: Dietary occurrence and biochemical activity, Nutr. Res., 18, 1995–2018 (1998).

M. Moraes, J.H.Y. Vilegas, F.M. Lancas, Supercritical fluid extraction of glycosylated flavonoids from passiflora leaves, Phytochem. Anal, 8, 257– 260 (1997).

M. Ashraf–Khorassani, L.T. Taylor, Sequential fractionation of grape seeds into oils, polyphenols, and procyanidins via a single system employing co2–based fluids, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 52, 2440–2444 (2004).

A. Chafer, M.C. Pascual–Marti, A. Salvador, A. Berna, Supercritical fluid extraction and hplc determination of relevant polyphenolic compounds in grape skin, J. Sep. Sci., 28, 2050–2056 (2005).

L. Fiori, D. de Faveri, A.A. Casazza, P. Perego, Grape by–products: Extraction of polyphenolic compounds using supercritical co2 and liquid organic solvent – a preliminary investigation subproductos de la uva: Extraccion de compuestos polifenolicos usando co2 supercritico y disolventes organicos liquidos – una investigacion preliminar, Cyta–J. Food, 7, 163–171 (2009).

M.C. Lazze, R. Pizzala, F.J.G. Pecharroman, P.G. Garnica, J.M.A. Rodriguez, N. Fabris, L. Bianchi, Grape waste extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction contains bioactive antioxidant molecules and induces antiproliferative effects in human colon adenocarcinoma cells, J. Med. Food, 12, 561–568 (2009).

R. Murga, R. Ruiz, S. Beltran, J.L. Cabezas, Extraction of natural complex phenols and tannins from grape seeds by using supercritical mixtures of carbon dioxide and alcohol, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 48, 3408–3412 (2000).

B. Palenzuela, L. Arce, A. Macho, E. Munoz, A. Rios, M. Valcarcel, Bioguided extraction of polyphenols from grape marc by using an alternative supercritical–fluid extraction method based on a liquid solvent trap, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 378, 2021–2027 (2004).

M. Pinelo, A. Arnous, A.S. Meyer, Upgrading of grape skins: Significance of plant cell–wall structural components and extraction techniques for phenol release, Trends Food Sci. Technol., 17, 579–590 (2006).

M. Pinelo, A. Ruiz–Rodriguez, J. Sineiro, F.J. Senorans, G. Reglero, M.J. Nunez, Supercritical fluid and solid–liquid extraction of phenolic antioxidants from grape pomace: A comparative study, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 226, 199–205 (2007).

T. Vatai, M. Skerget, Z. Knez, Extraction of phenolic compounds from elder berry and different grape marc varieties using organic solvents and/ or supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Food Eng., 90, 246–254 (2009).

E.Q. Xia, G.F. Deng, Y.J. Guo, H.B. Li, Biological activities of polyphenols from grapes, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 11, 622–646 (2010).

J. Yu, D.V. Dandekar, R.T. Toledo, R.K. Singh, B.S. Patil, Supercritical fluid extraction of limonoids and naringin from grapefruit (citrus paradisi macf.) seeds, Food Chem., 105, 1026–1031 (2007).

S. Scalia, L. Giuffreda, P. Pallado, Analytical and preparative supercritical fluid extraction of chamomile flowers and its comparison with conventional methods, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 21, 549–558 (1999).

M. Antolovich, P. Prenzler, K. Robards, D. Ryan, Sample preparation in the determination of phenolic compounds in fruits, Analyst, 125, 989–1009 (2000).

J.M.A. Araujo, M.V. Silva, J.B.P. Chaves, Supercritical fluid extraction of daidzein and genistein isoflavones from soybean hypocotyl after hydrolysis with endogenous beta–glucosidases, Food Chem., 105, 266–272 (2007).

C. Bergeron, S. Gafner, E. Clausen, D.J. Carrier, Comparison of the chemical composition of extracts from scutellaria lateriflora using accelerated solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction versus standard hot water or 70% ethanol extraction, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 53, 3076–3080 (2005).

Y. Chang, B. Liu, B. Shen, Orthogonal array design for the optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of balicalin from roots of scutellaria baicalensis georgi, J. Sep. Sci., 30, 1568–1574 (2007).

K.L. Chiu, Y.C. Cheng, J.H. Chen, C.M.J. Chang, P.W. Yang, Supercritical fluids extraction of ginkgo ginkgolides and flavonoids, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 24, 77–87 (2002).

E. Dimitrieska–Stojkovic, Z. Zdravkovski, Supercritical fluid extraction of quercetin and rutin from hyperici herba, J. Liq. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 26, 2517–2533 (2003).

M. Hamburger, D. Baumann, S. Adler, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected medicinal plants – effects of high pressure and added ethanol on yield of extracted substances, Phytochem. Anal, 15, 46–54 (2004).

C.S. Kaiser, H. Rompp, P.C. Schmidt, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of chamomile flowers: Extraction efficiency, stability, and in–line inclusion of chamomile–carbon dioxide extract in beta–cyclodextrin, Phytochem. Anal, 15, 249–256 (2004).

B. Klejdus, L. Lojkova, O. Lapcik, R. Koblovska, J. Moravcova, V. Kuban, Supercritical fluid extraction of isoflavones from biological samples with ultra–fast high–performance liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry, J. Sep. Sci., 28, 1334– 1346 (2005).

K.G. Martino, D. Guyer, Supercritical fluid extraction of quercetin from onion skins, J. Food Process Eng., 27, 17–28 (2004).

M.A. Rostagno, J.M.A. Araujo, D. Sandi, Supercritical fluid extraction of isoflavones from soybean flour, Food Chem., 78, 111–117 (2002).

M.T. Tena, A. Rios, M. Valcarcel, Supercritical fluid extraction of t–resveratrol and other phenolics from a spiked solid, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 361, 143–148 (1998).

C. Yang, Y.R. Xu, W.X. Yao, Extraction of pharmaceutical components from ginkgo biloba leaves using supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 50, 846–849 (2002).

J. Liu, S.Y. Lin, Z.Z. Wang, C.N. Wang, E.L. Wang, Y. Zhang, J.B. Liu, Supercritical fluid extraction of flavonoids from maydis stigma and its nitrite–scavenging ability, Food Bioprod. Process., 89, 333–339 (2011).

L.E. Laroze, B. Diaz–Reinoso, A. Moure, M.E. Zuniga, H. Dominguez, Extraction of antioxidants from several berries pressing wastes using conventional and supercritical solvents, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 231, 669–677 (2010).

I.J. Seabra, M.E.M. Braga, M.T.P. Batista, H.C. de Sousa, Fractioned high pressure extraction of anthocyanins from elderberry (sambucus nigra l.) pomace, Food Bioprocess Tech., 3, 674–683 (2010).

E. Rahimi, J.M. Prado, G. Zahedi, M.A.A. Meireles, Chamomile extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide: Mathematical modeling and optimization, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 56, 80–88 (2011).

P. Jimenez, L. Masson, A. Barriga, J. Chavez, P. Robert, Oxidative stability of oils containing olive leaf extracts obtained by pressure, supercritical and solvent–extraction, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 113, 497–505 (2011).

M.S. Liza, R.A. Rahman, B. Mandana, S. Jinap, A. Rahmat, I.S.M. Zaidul, A. Hamid, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of bioactive flavonoid from strobilanthes crispus (pecah kaca), Food Bioprod. Process., 88, 319–326 (2010).

H. Cao, M.J. Ji, H.X. Wang, Essential oil from marchantia convoluta: Extraction and components, J. Chil. Chem. Soc., 52, 1088–1091 (2007).

H. Cao, J.B. Xiao, M. Xu, Comparison of volatile components of marchantia convoluta obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and petrol ether extraction, J. Food Compos. Anal., 20, 45–51 (2007).

J.B. Xiao, J.W. Chen, M. Xu, Supercritical fluid co2 extraction of essential oil from marchantia convoluta: Global yields and extract chemical composition, Electron. J. Biotechnol., 10, 141– 148 (2007).

B.G. Liu, Z.X. Ning, Y. Zhan, K.Y. Xu, J.H. Gao, Chracterization and 1,1–diphenyl–2–picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of methanol and supercritical carbon dioxide extracts from leaves of adinandra nitida, J. Food Biochem., 32, 431– 442 (2008).

M. Bimakr, R.A. Rahman, A. Ganjloo, F.S. Taip, L.M. Salleh, M.Z.I. Sarker, Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of bioactive flavonoid compounds from spearmint (mentha spicata l.) leaves by using response surface methodology, Food Bioprocess Tech., 5, 912–920 (2012).

M. Bimakr, R.L.A. Rahman, F.S. Taip, A. Ganjloo, L.M. Salleh, J. Selamat, A. Hamid, I.S.M. Zaidul, Comparison of different extraction methods for the extraction of major bioactive flavonoid compounds from spearmint (mentha spicata l.) leaves, Food Bioprod. Process., 89, 67–72 (2011).

L.C. Paviani, C. Dariva, M.C. Marcucci, F.A. Cabral, Supercritical carbon dioxide selectivity to fractionate phenolic compounds from the dry ethanolic extract of propolis, J. Food Process Eng., 33, 15–27 (2010).

C.R. Chen, Y.N. Lee, M.R. Lee, C.M.J. Chang, Supercritical fluids extraction of cinnamic acid derivatives from brazilian propolis and the effect on growth inhibition of colon cancer cells, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 40, 130–135 (2009).

Y.N. Lee, C.R. Chen, H.L. Yang, C.C. Lin, C.M.J. Chang, Isolation and purification of 3,5–diprenyl– 4–hydroxycinnamic acid (artepillin c) in brazilian propolis by supercritical fluid extractions, Sep. Purif. Technol., 54, 130–138 (2007).

D. Biscaia, S.R.S. Ferreira, Propolis extracts obtained by low pressure methods and supercritical fluid extraction, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 51, 17–23 (2009).

M.C. Lin, M.J. Tsai, K.C. Wen, Supercritical fluid extraction of flavonoids from scutellariae radix, J. Chromatogr. A, 830, 387–395 (1999).

T.M. Takeuchi, M.L. Rubano, M.A.A. Meireles, Characterization and functional properties of macela (achyrocline satureioides) extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction using mixtures of co2 plus ethanol, Food Bioprocess Tech., 3, 804–812 (2010).

M. Ligor, O. Kornysova, A. Maruska, B. Buszewski, Determination of flavonoids in tea and rooibos extracts by tlc and hplc, Jpc–J. Planar. Chromat., 21, 355–360 (2008).

D. Meterc, M. Petermann, E. Weidner, Drying of aqueous green tea extracts using a supercritical fluid spray process, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 45, 253–259 (2008).

J. Shi, H. Nawaz, J. Pohorly, G. Mittal, Y. Kakuda, Y.M. Jiang, Extraction of polyphenolics from plant material for functional foods – engineering and technology, Food Rev. Int., 21, 139–166 (2005).

E.E. Yilmaz, E.B. Ozvural, H. Vural, Extraction and identification of proanthocyanidins from grape seed (vitis vinifera) using supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 55, 924–928 (2011).

L.F. Zhang, D.H. Mou, Y.S. Du, Procyanidins: Extraction and micro–encapsulation, J. Sci. Food Agric., 87, 2192–2197 (2007).

T.I. Lafka, A.E. Lazou, V.J. Sinanoglou, E.S. Lazos, Phenolic and antioxidant potential of olive oil mill wastes, Food Chem., 125, 92–98 (2011).

M.E.M. Braga, R.M.S. Santos, I.J. Seabra, R. Facanali, M.O.M. Marques, H.C. de Sousa, Fractioned sfe of antioxidants from maritime pine bark, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 47, 37–48 (2008).

O. Yesil–Celiktas, F. Otto, H. Parlar, A comparative study of flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of supercritical co2 extracted pine barks grown in different regions of turkey and germany, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 229, 671–677 (2009).

A.T. Serra, I.J. Seabra, M.E.M. Braga, M.R. Bronze, H.C. de Sousa, C.M.M. Duarte, Processing cherries (prunus avium) using supercritical fluid technology. Part 1: Recovery of extract fractions rich in bioactive compounds, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 55, 184–191 (2010).

F.J. Senorans, E. Ibanez, S. Cavero, J. Tabera, G. Reglero, Liquid chromatographic–mass spectrometric analysis of supercritical–fluid extracts of rosemary plants, J. Chromatogr. A, 870, 491–499 (2000).

P. Manpong, S. Douglas, P.L. Douglas, S. Pongamphai, W. Teppaitoon, O. Kaewprakaisangkul, Response surface methodology applied to the extraction of phenolic compounds from jatropha curcas linn. Leaves using supercritical co2 with a methanol co–solvent, J. Food Process Eng., 34, 1661–1681 (2011).

A. Manosroi, W. Ruksiriwanich, M. Abe, H. Sakai, W. Manosroi, J. Manosroi, Biological activities of the rice bran extract and physical characteristics of its entrapment in niosomes by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 54, 137–144 (2010).

P. Mitra, P.C. Barman, K.S. Chang, Coumarin extraction from cuscuta reflexa using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide and development of an artificial neural network model to predict the coumarin yield, Food Bioprocess Tech., 4, 737–744 (2011).

C.C. Yang, M.R. Lee, S.L. Hsu, C.M.J. Chang, Supercritical fluids extraction of capillarisin from artemisia capillaris and its inhibition of in vitro growth of hepatoma cells, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 42, 96–103 (2007).

R.F. Rodrigues, A.K. Tashima, R.M.S. Pereira, R.S. Mohamed, F.A. Cabral, Coumarin solubility and extraction from emburana (torresea cearensis) seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 43, 375–382 (2008).

D. Grigonis, P.R. Venskutonis, B. Sivik, M. Sandahl, C.S. Eskilsson, Comparison of different extraction techniques for isolation of antioxidants from sweet grass (hierochloe odorata), J. Supercrit. Fluids, 33, 223–233 (2005).

Q.H. Chen, P. Li, J. He, Z. Zhang, J. Liu, Supercritical fluid extraction for identification and determination of volatile metabolites from angelica dahurica by gc–ms, J. Sep. Sci., 31, 3218–3224 (2008).

Y. Chen, Y.C. Jin, Y.F. Chen, Y.Q. Jin, X.S. Liu, L.H. Wang, A novel hplc method to analyze imperatorin and isoimperatorin of angelica dahurica oils obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, J. Liq. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 32, 2384–2395 (2009).

A.T. Quitain, K. Oro, S. Katoh, T. Moriyoshi, Recovery of oil components of okara by ethanol– modified supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, Bioresour. Technol., 97, 1509–1514 (2006).

O.I. Pokrovskii, A.A. Markoliya, F.D. Lepeshkin, I.V. Kuvykin, O.O. Parenago, S.A. Gonchukov, Extraction of linear furocoumarins from ammi majus seeds by means of supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography, Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 3, 1165–1171 (2009).

T. Hatami, R.N. Cavalcanti, T.M. Takeuchi, M.A.A. Meireles, Supercritical fluid extraction of bioactive compounds from macela (achyrocline satureioides) flowers: Kinetic, experiments and modeling, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 65, 71–77 (2012).

T. Floris, G. Filippino, S. Scrugli, M.B. Pinna, F. Argiolas, A. Argiolas, M. Murru, E. Reverchon, Antioxidant compounds recovery from grape residues by a supercritical antisolvent assisted process, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 54, 165–170 (2010).

K. Ghafoor, J. Park, Y.H. Choi, Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of bioactive compounds from grape (vitis labrusca b.) peel by using response surface methodology, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg., 11, 485–490 (2010).

X.L. Liu, M.M. Zhao, J.S. Wang, W. Luo, Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of emblica extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and methanol extraction, J. Food Biochem., 33, 307–330 (2009).

M. Sandell, O. Laaksonen, R. Jarvinen, N. Rostiala, T. Pohjanheimo, K. Tiitinen, H. Kallio, Orosensory profiles and chemical composition of black currant (ribes nigrum) juice and fractions of press residue, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 57, 3718–3728 (2009).

İ.H. Adil, M.E. Yener, A. Bayındırlı, Extraction of total phenolics of sour cherry pomace by high pressure solvent and subcritical fluid and determination of the antioxidant activities of the extracts, Sep. Sci. Technol., 43, 1091–1110 (2008).

Y.K. Cho, J.H. Ryu, G.B. Lim, S.Y. Lee, Supercritical fluid extraction of glabridin from glycyrrhiza glabra, Frontiers on Separation Science and Technology, 334–337 (2004).

Q. Chen, S. Yao, X.F. Huang, J.G. Luo, J.S. Wang, L.Y. Kong, Supercritical fluid extraction of coriandrum sativum and subsequent separation of isocoumarins by high–speed counter–current chromatography, Food Chem., 117, 504–508 (2009).

H. Sovova, L. Opletal, M. Bartlova, M. Sajfrtova, M. Krenkova, Supercritical fluid extraction of lignans and cinnamic acid from schisandra chinensis, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 42, 88–95 (2007).

M.C. Wang, Y.C. Lai, C.L. Chang, High throughput screening and antioxidant assay of dibenzo a,c cyclooctadiene lignans in modified–ultrasonic and supercritical fluid extracts of schisandra chinensis baill by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and a free radical–scavenging method, J. Sep. Sci., 31, 1322–1332 (2008).

E. Sedlak, I. Boldizsar, L. Borsodi, Z. Fuzfai, I. Molnar–Perl, E. Preininger, I. Gyurjan, Identification and quantification of lignans, carboxylic acids and sugars in the leaves of forsythia species and cultivars, Chromatographia, 68, S35–S41 (2008).

L.M. Comin, F. Temelli, M.A. Saldana, Supercritical co2 extraction of flax lignans, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 88, 707–715 (2011).

V.A.D. Garcia, V.F. Cabral, E.F. Zanoelo, C. da Silva, L. Cardozo, Extraction of mucuna seed oil using supercritical carbon dioxide to increase the concentration of l–dopa in the defatted meal, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 69, 75–81 (2012).

O. Laaksonen, M. Sandell, R. Jarvinen, H. Kallio, Orosensory contributing compounds in crowberry (empetrum nigrum) press–byproducts, Food Chem., 124, 1514–1524 (2011).

K. Hartonen, J. Parshintsev, K. Sandberg, E. Bergelin, L. Nisula, M.L. Riekkola, Isolation of flavonoids from aspen knotwood by pressurized hot water extraction and comparison with other extraction techniques, Talanta, 74, 32–38 (2007).

A.N. Giannuzzo, H.J. Boggetti, M.A. Nazareno, H.T. Mishima, Supercritical fluid extraction of naringin from the peel of citrus paradisi, Phytochem. Anal, 14, 221–223 (2003).

Y.G. Zu, X.L. Liu, Y.J. Fu, N. Wu, Y. Kong, M. Wink, Chemical composition of the sfe–co2 extracts from cajanus cajan (l.) huth and their antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo, Phytomedicine, 17, 1095–1101 (2010).

J.Y. Peng, G.R. Fan, Y.F. Chai, Y.T. Wu, Efficient new method for extraction and isolation of three flavonoids from patrinia villosa juss. By supercritical fluid extraction and high–speed counter– current chromatography, J. Chromatogr. A, 1102, 44–50 (2006).

Q.H. Chen, P. Li, F.J. Yuan, F.J. Cheng, J. He, J. Liu, Z. Zhang, Identification and quantification of the volatile constituents in cnidium monnieri using supercritical fluid extraction followed by gc–ms, J. Sep. Sci., 32, 252–257 (2009).

L.A.V. Sarmento, R.A.F. Machado, J.C.C. Petrus, T.R. Tamanini, A. Bolzan, Extraction of polyphenols from cocoa seeds and concentration through polymeric membranes, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 45, 64–69 (2008).

V. Lanzotti, The analysis of onion and garlic, J. Chromatogr. A, 1112, 3–22 (2006).

C. Turner, P. Turner, G. Jacobson, K. Almgren, M. Waldeback, P. Sjoberg, E.N. Karlsson, K.E. Markides, Subcritical water extraction and beta– glucosidase–catalyzed hydrolysis of quercetin glycosides in onion waste, Green Chem., 8, 949–959 (2006).

W.L. Yu, B. Shu, Y.P. Zhao, Supercritical co2 extraction of resveratrol and its glycoside piceid from chinese traditional medicinal herb polygonum cuspidatum, J. Sci. Food Agric., 85, 489–492 (2005).

V. Jerkovic, S. Collin, Fate of resveratrol and piceid through different hop processings and storage times, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 56, 584–590 (2008).

A.L. Dawidowicz, D. Wianowska, J. Gawdzik, D.H. Smolarz, Optimization of ase conditions for the hplc determination of rutin and isoquercitrin in sambucus nigra l, J. Liq. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 26, 2381–2397 (2003).

H.Y. Li, J. Wu, C.B. Rempel, U. Thiyam, Effect of operating parameters on oil and phenolic extraction using supercritical co2, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 87, 1081–1089 (2010).

M. Sun, L. Xu, M.D.A. Saldana, F. Temelli, Comparison of canola meals obtained with conventional methods and supercritical co(2) with and without ethanol, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 85, 667–675 (2008).

M. Markom, M. Hasan, W.R.W. Daud, N. Anuar, O. Hassan, H. Singh, Chemical profiling and quantification of tannins in phyllanthus niruri linn. Fractionated by sfe method, Sep. Sci. Technol., 46, 71–78 (2011).

M. Markom, M. Hasan, W.R.W. Daud, H. Singh, J.M. Jahim, Extraction of hydrolysable tannins from phyllanthus niruri linn.: Effects of solvents and extraction methods, Sep. Purif. Technol., 52, 487–496 (2007).

Z. Solati, B.S. Baharin, H. Bagheri, Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc–co2) extraction of nigella sativa l. Oil using full factorial design, Ind. Crop. Prod., 36, 519–523 (2012).

A.S. Zarena, B. Manohar, K.U. Sankar, Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of xanthones from mangosteen pericarp by response surface methodology, Food Bioprocess Tech., 5, 1181–1188 (2012).

A.S. Zarena, N.M. Sachindra, K.U. Sankar, Optimisation of ethanol modified supercritical carbon dioxide on the extract yield and antioxidant activity from garcinia mangostana l, Food Chem., 130, 203–208 (2012).

A.S. Zarena, K.U. Sankar, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of xanthones with antioxidant activity from garcinia mangostana: Characterization by hplc/lc–esi–ms, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 49, 330–337 (2009).

C.R. Chen, C.H. Wang, L.Y. Wang, Z.H. Hong, S.H. Chen, W.J. Ho, C.M.J. Chang, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and deacidification of rice bran oil, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 45, 322–331 (2008).

S.P. Jesus, R. Grimaldi, H. Hense, Recovery of gamma–oryzanol from rice bran oil byproduct using supercritical fluid extraction, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 55, 149–155 (2010).

M.J. Lerma–Garcia, J.M. Herrero–Martinez, E.F. Simo–Alfonso, C.R.B. Mendonca, G. Ramis–Ramos, Composition, industrial processing and applications of rice bran gamma–oryzanol, Food Chem., 115, 389–404 (2009).

B. Shan, J.H. Xie, J.H. Zhu, Y. Peng, Ethanol modified supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of flavonoids from momordica charantia l. And its antioxidant activity, Food Bioprod. Process., 90, 579–587 (2012).

J.Z. He, P. Shao, J.H. Liu, Q.M. Ru, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (citrus grandis (l.) osbeck) peel and their antioxidant activity, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 13, 13065–13078 (2012).

E. Ibanez, A. Kubatova, F.J. Senorans, S. Cavero, G. Reglero, S.B. Hawthorne, Subcritical water extraction of antioxidant compounds from rosemary plants, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 51, 375–382 (2003).

M. Ollanketo, A. Peltoketo, K. Hartonen, R. Hiltunen, M.L. Riekkola, Extraction of sage (salvia officinalis l.) by pressurized hot water and conventional methods: Antioxidant activity of the extracts, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 215, 158–163 (2002).

F.J. Senorans, A. Ruiz–Rodriguez, S. Cavero, A. Cifuentes, E. Ibanez, G. Reglero, Isolation of antioxidant compounds from orange juice by using countercurrent supercritical fluid extraction (cc– sfe), J. Agric. Food. Chem., 49, 6039–6044 (2001).

C. Simo, E. Ibanez, F.J. Senorans, C. Barbas, G. Reglero, A. Cifuentes, Analysis of antioxidants from orange juice obtained by countercurrent supercritical fluid extraction, using micellar electrokinetic chromatography and reverse–phase liquid chromatography, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 50, 6648– 6652 (2002).

A. Petsalo, J. Jalonen, A. Tolonen, Identification of flavonoids of rhodiola rosea by liquid chromatography– tandem mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 1112, 224–231 (2006).

M. Ligor, B. Buszewski, Thin layer chromatographic techniques (tlc, op tlc) for determination of biological activated compounds from herb extracts, J. Liq. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 30, 2617– 2628 (2007).

E.H. Liu, L.W. Qi, J. Cao, P. Li, C.Y. Li, Y.B. Peng, Advances of modern chromatographic and electrophoretic methods in separation and analysis of flavonoids, Molecules, 13, 2521–2544 (2008).

M. Kivilompolo, V. Oburka, T. Hyotylainen, Comparison of gc–ms and lc–ms methods for the analysis of antioxidant phenolic acids in herbs, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 388, 881–887 (2007).

C.D. Stalikas, Extraction, separation, and detection methods for phenolic acids and flavonoids, J. Sep. Sci., 30, 3268–3295 (2007).

B. Klejdus, J. Kopecky, L. Benesova, J. Vacek, Solid–phase/supercritical–fluid extraction for liquid chromatography of phenolic compounds in freshwater microalgae and selected cyanobacterial species, J. Chromatogr. A, 1216, 763–771 (2009).

A. Crego, E. Ibanez, E. Garcia, R.R. de Pablos, F.J. Senorans, G. Reglero, A. Cifuentes, Capillary electrophoresis separation of rosemary antioxidants from subcritical water extracts, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 219, 549–555 (2004).

S.F. Miao, J.P. Yu, Z. Du, Y.X. Guan, S.J. Yao, Z.Q. Zhu, Supercritical fluid extraction and micronization of ginkgo flavonoids from ginkgo biloba leaves, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 49, 5461–5466 (2010).

X. Xu, L.P. Sun, J. Dong, H.C. Zhang, Breaking the cells of rape bee pollen and consecutive extraction of functional oil with supercritical carbon dioxide, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg., 10, 42–46 (2009).

P. Ramirez, M.R. Garcia–Risco, S. Santoyo, F.J. Senorans, E. Ibanez, G. Reglero, Isolation of functional ingredients from rosemary by preparative– supercritical fluid chromatography (prep–sfc), J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 41, 1606–1613 (2006).

P. Ramirez, T. Fornari, F.J. Senorans, E. Ibanez, G. Reglero, Isolation of phenolic antioxidant compounds by sfc, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 35, 128–132 (2005).

A.V.M. Nunes, A.A. Matias, M.N. da Ponte, C.M.M. Duarte, Quaternary phase equilibria for scco(2) plus biophenolic compound plus water plus ethanol, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 52, 244–247 (2007).

J. Chumpoo, P. Prasassarakich, Bio–oil from hydro–liquefaction of bagasse in supercritical ethanol, Energy & Fuels, 24, 2071–2077 (2010).

F. Shahidi, M. Naczk, Food phenolics: Sources, chemistry, effects, applications, Technomic Publishing Company, 1995.

S.K.T. Venkatachallam, H. Pattekhan, S. Divakar, U.S. Kadimi, Chemical composition of nigella sativa l. Seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Food Sci. Tech. MYS, 47, 598–605 (2010).

A. Carrasco–Pancorbo, L. Cerretani, A. Bendini, A. Segura–Carretero, T. Gallina–Toschi, A. Fernandez– Gutierrez, Analytical determination of polyphenols in olive oils, J. Sep. Sci., 28, 837–858 (2005).

L.H. Wang, Y.H. Mei, F. Wang, X.S. Liu, Y. Chen, A novel and efficient method combining sfe and liquid–liquid extraction for separation of coumarins from angelica dahurica, Sep. Purif. Technol., 77, 397–401 (2011).

P. Rubiolo, B. Sgorbini, E. Liberto, C. Cordero, C. Bicchi, Essential oils and volatiles: Sample preparation and analysis. A review, Flavour Fragrance J., 25, 282–290 (2010).

H. Abbasi, K. Rezaei, L. Rashidi, Extraction of essential oils from the seeds of pomegranate using organic solvents and supercritical co2, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 85, 83–89 (2008).

B. Damjanovic, Z. Lepojevic, V. Zivkovic, A. Tolic, Extraction of fennel (foeniculum vulgare mill.) seeds with supercritical co2: Comparison with hydrodistillation, Food Chem., 92, 143–149 (2005).

J.M. del Valle, T. Rogalinski, C. Zetzl, G. Brunner, Extraction of boldo (peumus boldus m.) leaves with supercritical co(2) and hot pressurized water, Food Res. Int., 38, 203–213 (2005).

E.S. Giray, S. Kirici, D.A. Kaya, M. Turk, O. Sonmez, M. Inan, Comparing the effect of sub–critical water extraction with conventional extraction methods on the chemical composition of lavandula stoechas, Talanta, 74, 930–935 (2008).

A.Z. Kakasy, E. Lemberkovics, B. Simandi, L. Lelik, E. Hethelyi, I. Antal, E. Szoke, Comparative study of traditional essential oil and supercritical fluid extracts of moldavian dragonhead (dracocephalum moldavica l.), Flavour Fragrance J., 21, 598–603 (2006).

P. Kotnik, M. Skerget, Z. Knez, Supercritical fluid extraction of chamomile flower heads: Comparison with conventional extraction, kinetics and scale–up, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 43, 192–198 (2007).

M. Lo Presti, S. Ragusa, A. Trozzi, P. Dugo, F. Visinoni, A. Fazio, G. Dugo, L. Mondello, A comparison between different techniques for the isolation of rosemary essential oil, J. Sep. Sci., 28, 273–280 (2005).

S. Shen, Y.F. Sha, C.H. Deng, D.X. Fu, J.K. Chen, X.M. Zhang, Comparison of solid–phase microextraction, supercritical fluid extraction, steam distillation, and solvent extraction techniques for analysis of volatile consituents in fructus amomi, J. AOAC Int., 88, 418–423 (2005).

E. Stashenko, C. Ruiz, A. Munoz, M. Castaneda, J. Martinez, Composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils of lippia origanoides hbk grown in colombia, Nat. Prod. Commun., 3, 563–566 (2008).

L.H. Wang, Y.S. Chen, Y.T. Song, Y. Chen, X.S. Liu, Gc–ms of volatile components of schisandra chinensis obtained by supercritical fluid and conventional extraction, J. Sep. Sci., 31, 3238–3245 (2008).

L.H.C. Carlson, A. Bolzan, R.A.F. Machado, Separation of d–limonene from supercritical co2 by means of membranes, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 34, 143–147 (2005).

G. Flores, G.P. Blanch, M.L.R. del Castillo, M. Herraiz, Enantiomeric composition studies in lavandula species using supercritical fluids, J. Sep. Sci., 28, 2333–2338 (2005).

U. Akman, N. Okay, O. Hortacsu, Hierarchical clustering analysis for the distribution of origanum– oil components in dense co2, Korean J. Chem. Eng., 25, 329–344 (2008).

F. Gironi, M. Maschietti, Continuous countercurrent deterpenation of lemon essential oil by means of supercritical carbon dioxide: Experimental data and process modelling, Chem. Eng. Sci., 63, 651– 661 (2008).

S. Varona, A. Martin, M.J. Cocero, T. Gamse, Supercritical carbon dioxide fractionation of lavandin essential oil: Experiments and modeling, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 45, 181–188 (2008).

S. Raeissi, S. Diaz, S. Espinosa, C.J. Peters, E.A. Brignole, Ethane as an alternative solvent for supercritical extraction of orange peel oils, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 45, 306–313 (2008).

F. Ashtiani, F. Sefidkon, Y. Yamini, K. Khajeh, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of volatile components from two eucalyptus species (e– spathulata and e–microtheca), J. Ess. Oil Bear. Pl., 10, 198–208 (2007).

N. Ganan, E.A. Brignole, Fractionation of essential oils with biocidal activity using supercritical co2–experiments and modeling, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 58, 58–67 (2011).

S.B. Glisic, M. Ristic, D.U. Skala, The combined extraction of sage (salvia officinalis l.): Ultrasound followed by supercritical co2 extraction, Ultrason. Sonochem., 18, 318–326 (2011).

J. Ivanovic, S. Dilas, M. Jadranin, V. Vajs, N. Babovic, S. Petrovic, I. Zizovic, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (rosmarinus officinalis l.) and sage (salvia officinalis l.), J. Serb. Chem. Soc., 74, 717–732 (2009).

E. Langa, G. Della Porta, A.M.F. Palavra, J.S. Urieta, A.M. Mainar, Supercritical fluid extraction of spanish sage essential oil: Optimization of the process parameters and modelling, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 49, 174–181 (2009).

C. Grosso, A.C. Figueiredo, J. Burillo, A.M. Mainar, J.S. Urieta, J.G. Barroso, J.A. Coelho, A.M.F. Palavra, Supercritical fluid extraction of the volatile oil from santolina chamaecyparissus, J. Sep. Sci., 32, 3215–3222 (2009).

J. Ivanovic, D. Misic, M. Ristic, O. Pesic, I. Zizovic, Supercritical co2 extract and essential oil of bay (laurus nobilis l.) – chemical composition and antibacterial activity, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., 75, 395–404 (2010).

H. Marzouki, A. Piras, B. Marongiu, A. Rosa, M.A. Dessi, Extraction and separation of volatile and fixed oils from berries of laurus nobilis l. By supercritical co(2), Molecules, 13, 1702–1711 (2008).

Z.T. Jiang, R. Li, Y. Wang, Essential oil composition of cinnamomum loureiroi grown in china extracted by supercritical fluid extraction, J. Ess. Oil Bear. Pl., 11, 267–270 (2008).

P.F. Leal, F.C.M. Chaves, L.C. Ming, A.J. Petenate, M.A.A. Meireles, Global yields, chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of clove basil (ocimum gratissimum l.) extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, J. Food Process Eng., 29, 547–559 (2006).

T.S. Mann, G.D.K. Babu, S. Guleria, B. Singh, Comparison of eucalyptus cinerea essential oils produced by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, Nat. Prod. Commun., 6, 107–110 (2011).

M. Sokolova, A. Orav, M. Koel, T. Kailas, M. Muurisepp, Composition of the oil and supercritical fluid co2 extract of sweet gale (myrica gale l.) fruits, J. Essent. Oil Res., 17, 188–191 (2005).

I. Zizovic, M. Stamenic, A. Orlovic, D. Skala, Supercritical carbon dioxide essential oil extraction of lamiaceae family species: Mathematical modelling on the micro–scale and process optimization, Chem. Eng. Sci., 60, 6747–6756 (2005).

R. Saini, V. Jaitak, S. Guleria, V.K. Kaul, G.D.K. Babu, B. Singh, B. Lal, R.D. Singh, Comparison of headspace analysis of volatile constituents with gc–ms analysis of hydrodistilled and supercritical fluid extracted oil of capillipedium parviflorum, J. Essent. Oil Res., 24, 315–320 (2012).

T.C. Tzeng, Y.L. Lin, T.T. Jong, C.M.J. Chang, Ethanol modified supercritical fluids extraction of scopoletin and artemisinin from artemisia annua l, Sep. Purif. Technol., 56, 18–24 (2007).

M.S.T. Barroso, G. Villanueva, A.M. Lucas, G.P. Perez, R.M.F. Vargas, G.W. Brun, E. Cassel, Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non– volatile compounds from schinus molle l, Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 28, 305–312 (2011).

L. Petrovic, Z. Lepojevic, V. Sovilj, D. Adamovic, V. Tesevic, Composition of essential oil obtained from tubular, head and ligulate flowers of calendula officinalis l. By steam distillation of plant material and co2 extracts, J. Essent. Oil Res., 22, 143–146 (2010).

P. Costa, S. Goncalves, C. Grosso, P.B. Andrade, P. Valentao, M.G. Bernardo–Gil, A. Romano, Chemical profiling and biological screening of thymus lotocephalus extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and hydrodistillation, Ind. Crop. Prod., 36, 246–256 (2012).

N.F. Ramandi, N.M. Najafi, F. Raofie, E. Ghasemi, Central composite design for the optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of fatty acids from borago officinalis l. Flower, J. Food Sci., 76, C1262–C1266 (2011).

L.T. Danh, D.A.T. Ngo, T.N.H. Le, J. Zhao, R. Mammucari, N. Foster, Antioxidant activity, yield and chemical composition of lavender essential oil extracted by supercritical co2, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 70, 27–34 (2012).

S.M. Ghoreishi, H. Kamali, H.S. Ghaziaskar, A.A. Dadkhah, Optimization of supercritical extraction of linalyl acetate from lavender via box–behnken design, Chem. Eng. Technol., 35, 1641–1648 (2012).

P. Costa, C. Grosso, S. Goncalves, P.B. Andrade, P. Valentao, M.G. Bernardo–Gil, A. Romano, Supercritical fluid extraction and hydrodistillation for the recovery of bioactive compounds from lavandula viridis l’her, Food Chem., 135, 112–121 (2012).

O. Bensebia, D. Barth, B. Bensebia, A. Dahmani, Supercritical co2 extraction of rosemary: Effect of extraction parameters and modelling, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 49, 161–166 (2009).

S. Cavero, L. Jaime, P.J. Martin–Alvarez, F.J. Senorans, G. Reglero, E. Ibanez, In vitro antioxidant analysis of supercritical fluid extracts from rosemary (rosmarinus officinalis l.), Eur. Food Res. Technol., 221, 478–486 (2005).

M. Herrero, M. Plaza, A. Cifuentes, E. Ibanez, Green processes for the extraction of bioactives from rosemary: Chemical and functional characterization via ultra–performance liquid chromatography– tandem mass spectrometry and in–vitro assays, J. Chromatogr. A, 1217, 2512–2520 (2010).

S. Irmak, K. Solakyildirim, A. Hesenov, O. Erbatur, Study on the stability of supercritical fluid extracted rosemary (rosmarinus offcinalis l.) essential oil, J. Anal. Chem., 65, 899–906 (2010).

C.F. Kuo, J.D. Su, C.H. Chiu, C.C. Peng, C.H. Chang, T.Y. Sung, S.H. Huang, W.C. Lee, C.C. Chyau, Anti–inflammatory effects of supercritical carbon dioxide extract and its isolated carnosic acid from rosmarinus officinalis leaves, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 59, 3674–3685 (2011).

K.A. McCormick, J.S. Olivarez, R.A. Fisher, T.M. Nahir, C.L. Phelps, Effect of sample preparation on the amounts of alpha–pinene and verbenone extracted from rosemary, J. Essent. Oil Res., 18, 478–480 (2006).

S.A. Rezzoug, C. Boutekedjiret, K. Allaf, Optimization of operating conditions of rosemary essential oil extraction by a fast controlled pressure drop process using response surface methodology, J. Food Eng., 71, 9–17 (2005).

C.H. Peng, J.D. Su, C.C. Chyau, T.Y. Sung, S.S. Ho, C.C. Peng, R.Y. Peng, Supercritical fluid extracts of rosemary leaves exhibit potent anti–inflammation and anti–tumor effects, Biosci., Biotechnol., Biochem., 71, 2223–2232 (2007).

A. Visentin, M. Cismondi, D. Maestri, Supercritical co2 fractionation of rosemary ethanolic oleoresins as a method to improve carnosic acid recovery, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg., 12, 142–145 (2011).

O. Yesil–Celiktas, E. Bedir, F.V. Sukan, In vitro antioxidant activities of rosmarinus officinalis extracts treated with supercritical carbon dioxide, Food Chem., 101, 1457–1464 (2007).

C. Soler–Rivas, F.R. Marin, S. Santoyo, M.R. Garcia–Risco, F.J. Senorans, G. Reglero, Testing and enhancing the in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability of rosmarinus officinalis extracts with a high level of antioxidant abietanes, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 58, 1144–1152 (2010).

J. Ivanovic, I. Zizovic, M. Ristic, M. Stamenic, D. Skala, The analysis of simultaneous clove/oregano and clove/thyme supercritical extraction, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 55, 983–991 (2011).

A. Ocana–Fuentes, E. Arranz–Gutierrez, F.J. Senorans, G. Reglero, Supercritical fluid extraction of oregano (origanum vulgare) essentials oils: Anti–inflammatory properties based on cytokine response on thp–1 macrophages, Food Chem. Toxicol., 48, 1568–1575 (2010).

M. Khajeh, Optimization of process variables for essential oil components from satureja hortensis by supercritical fluid extraction using box–behnken experimental design, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 55, 944–948 (2011).

C. Grosso, A.C. Figueiredo, J. Burillo, A.M. Mainar, J.S. Urieta, J.G. Barroso, J.A. Coelho, A.M.F. Palavra, Enrichment of the thymoquinone content in volatile oil from saturejia montana using supercritical fluid extraction, J. Sep. Sci., 32, 328–334 (2009).

O.P. Nautiyal, K.K. Tiwari, Extraction of dill seed oil (anethum sowa) using supercritical carbon diEng. Chem. Res., 50, 5723–5726 (2011).

P.P. Almeida, N. Mezzomo, S.R.S. Ferreira, Extraction of mentha spicata l. Volatile compounds: Evaluation of process parameters and extract composition, Food Bioprocess Tech., 5, 548–559 (2012).

J. Ivanovic, M. Ristic, D. Skala, Supercritical co2 extraction of helichrysum italicum: Influence of co2 density and moisture content of plant material, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 57, 129–136 (2011).

T. Hatami, M. Rahimi, P.C. Veggi, R. Portillo–Prieto, M.A.A. Meireles, Near–critical carbon dioxide extraction of khoa (satureja boliviana benth briq) using ethanol as a co–solvent: Experiment and modeling, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 55, 929–936 (2011).

D. Missopolinou, C. Tsioptsias, C. Lambrou, C. Panayiotou, Selective extraction of oxygenated compounds from oregano with sub–critical water, J. Sci. Food Agric., 92, 814–820 (2012).

L. Martin, A. Gonzalez–Coloma, C.E. Diaz, A.M. Mainar, J.S. Urieta, Supercritical co2 extraction of persea indica: Effect of extraction parameters, modelling and bioactivity of its extracts, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 57, 120–128 (2011).

P.F. de Oliveira, R.A.F. Machado, A. Bolzan, D. Barth, Supercritical fluid extraction of hernandulcin from lippia dulcis trev, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 63, 161–168 (2012).

B. Marongiu, A. Piras, S. Porcedda, E. Tuveri, E. Sanjust, M. Meli, F. Sollai, P. Zucca, A. Rescigno, Supercritical co(2) extract of cinnamomum zeylanicum: Chemical characterization and antityrosinase activity, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 55, 10022– 10027 (2007).

G.Y. Zhang, J.Y. Ling, Z.J. Cui, Supercritical co2 extraction of essential oil from dracocephalum tanguticum max–im and analysis by gc–ms, J. Liq. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol., 30, 287–292 (2007).

L. Martin, A.M. Mainar, A. Gonzalez–Coloma, J. Burillo, J.S. Urieta, Supercritical fluid extraction of wormwood (artemisia absinthium l.), J. Supercrit. Fluids, 56, 64–71 (2011).

H. Baseri, A. Haghighi–Asl, M.N. Lotfollahi, Effects of operating parameters on the cinnamaldehyde content of extracted essential oil using various methods, Chem. Eng. Technol., 33, 267–274 (2010).

H. Baseri, M.N. Lotfollahi, A.H. Asl, Effects of some experimental parameters on yield and composition of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of cinnamon bark, J. Food Process Eng., 34, 293– 303 (2011).

H.K.P. Ha, J. Maridable, P. Gaspillo, M. Hasika, R. Malaluan, J. Kawasaki, Essential oil from lemongrass extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and steam distillation, Philipp. Agric. Sci., 91, 36–41 (2008).

R.M.F. Vargas, E. Cassel, G.M.F. Gomes, L.G.S. Longhi, L. Atti–Serafini, A.C. Atti–Santos, Supercritical extraction of carqueja essential oil: Experiments and modeling, Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 23, 375–382 (2006).

A. Ranalli, S. Contento, L. Lucera, G. Pavone, G. Di Giacomo, L. Aloisio, C. Di Gregorio, A. Mucci, I. Kourtikakis, Characterization of carrot root oil arising from supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 52, 4795–4801 (2004).

M. Khajeh, Optimisation of supercritical fluid extraction of essential oil components of diplotaenia cachrydifolia: Box–behnken design, Nat. Prod. Res., 26, 1926–1930 (2012).

W.Q. Guan, S.F. Li, R.X. Yan, S.K. Tang, C. Quan, Comparison of essential oils of clove buds extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide and other three traditional extraction methods, Food Chem., 101, 1558–1564 (2007).

F. Yazdani, M. Mafi, F. Farhadi, K. Tabar–Heidar, K. Aghapoor, F. Mohsenzadeh, H.R. Darabi, Supercritical co2 extraction of essential oil from clove bud: Effect of operation conditions on the selective isolation of eugenol and eugenyl acetate, Z. Naturforsh. B, 60, 1197–1201 (2005).

X.G. Shi, X. Wang, D.J. Wang, Y.L. Geng, J.H. Liu, Separation and purification of –cyperone from cyperus rotundus with supercritical fluid extraction and high–speed counter–current chromatography, Sep. Sci. Technol., 44, 712–721 (2009).

M. Khajeh, Y. Yamini, S. Shariati, Comparison of essential oils compositions of nepeta persica obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation methods, Food Bioprod. Process., 88, 227–232 (2010).

A. Peterson, S. Machmudah, B.C. Roy, M. Goto, M. Sasaki, T. Hirose, Extraction of essential oil from geranium (pelargonium graveolens) with supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 81, 167–172 (2006).

C.E. Vargas, M.F. Mendes, D.A. Azevedo, F.L.P. Pessoa, A.C. Uller, Extraction of the essential oil of abajeru (chrysobalanus icaco) using supercritical co2, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 54, 171–177 (2010).

B. Marongiu, A. Piras, S. Porcedda, E. Tuveri, Extraction of santalum album and boswellia carterii birdw. Volatile oil by supercritical carbon dioxide: Influence of some process parameters, Flavour Fragrance J., 21, 718–724 (2006).

T.D. Luu, P. Truong, R. Mammucari, N. Foster, Extraction of vetiver essential oil by ethanol–modified supercritical carbon dioxide, Chem. Eng. J., 165, 26–34 (2010).

M. Khajeh, M.G. Moghaddam, M. Shakeni, Application of artificial neural network in predicting the extraction yield of essential oils of diplotaenia cachrydifolia by supercritical fluid extraction, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 69, 91–96 (2012).

T. Tapia, F. Perich, F. Pardo, G. Palma, A. Quiroz, Identification of volatiles from differently aged red clover (trifolium pratense) root extracts and behavioural responses of clover root borer (hylastinus obscurus) (marsham) (coleoptera : Scolytidae) to them, Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 35, 61–67 (2007).

Z. Zekovic, Z. Lepojevic, S. Milic, D. Adamovic, I. Mujic, Supercritical co2 extraction of mentha (mentha piperita l.) at different solvent densities, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., 74, 417–425 (2009).

B. Damjanovic, D. Skala, J. Baras, D. Petrovic– Djakov, Isolation of essential oil and supercritical carbon dioxide extract of juniperus communis l. Fruits from montenegro, Flavour Fragrance J., 21, 875–880 (2006).

M. Izadifar, F. Abdolahi, Comparison between neural network and mathematical modeling of supercritical co(2) extraction of black pepper essential oil, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 38, 37–43 (2006).

C. Perakis, V. Louli, K. Magoulas, Supercritical fluid extraction of black pepper oil, J. Food Eng., 71, 386–393 (2005).

Y. Yamini, N. Bahramifar, F. Sefidkon, M.J. Saharkhiz, E. Salamifar, Extraction of essential oil from pimpinella anisum using supercritical carbon dioxide and comparison with hydrodistillation, Nat. Prod. Res., 22, 212–218 (2008).

S.A. Yang, E.J. Lee, H.D. Choi, M.H. Yu, M.H. Bang, I.S. Lee, S.P. Lee, Anti–allergy effect of marc from silver vine (actinidia polygama) prepared by supercritical fluid extraction, Food Sci. Biotechnol., 19, 1309–1316 (2010).

B. Marongiu, A. Piras, S. Porcedda, E. Tuveri, A. Maxia, Comparative analysis of the oil and supercritical co2 extract of ridolfia segetum (l.) moris, Nat. Prod. Res., 21, 412–417 (2007).

H. Kazazi, K. Rezaei, S.J. Ghotb–Sharif, Z. Emam–Djomeh, Y. Yamini, Supercriticial fluid extraction of flavors and fragrances from hyssopus officinalis l. Cultivated in iran, Food Chem., 105, 805–811 (2007).

B. Marongiu, A. Piras, S. Porcedda, E. Tuveri, A. Maxia, Isolation of seseli bocconi guss., subsp praecox gamisans (apiaceae) volatile oil by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, Nat. Prod. Res., 20, 820–826 (2006).

Z.N. Yang, S.Q. Luo, Q.C. Peng, C. Zhao, Z.W. Yu, Gc–ms analysis of the essential oil of coral ginger (zingiber corallinum hance) rrhizome obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and steam distillation extraction, Chromatographia, 69, 785–790 (2009).

I.S. Markovic, Z.A. Darmati, B.F. Abramovic, Chemical composition of leaf extracts of stevia rebaudiana bertoni grown experimentally in vojvodina, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., 73, 283–297 (2008).

B.K. Huang, L.P. Qin, Q.C. Chu, Q.Y. Zhang, L.H. Gao, H.C. Zheng, Comparison of headspace spme with hydrodistillation and sfe for analysis of the volatile components of the roots of valeriana officinalis var. Latifolia, Chromatographia, 69, 489– 496 (2009).

A. Salimi, S. Fatemi, H.Z.N. Nei, A. Safaralie, Mathematical modeling of supercritical extraction of valerenic acid from valeriana officinalis l, Chem. Eng. Technol., 31, 1470–1480 (2008).

P.M. Moura, G.H.C. Prado, M.A.A. Meireles, C.G. Pereira, Supercritical fluid extraction from guava (psidium guajava) leaves: Global yield, composition and kinetic data, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 62, 116–122 (2012).

S.M. Pourmortazavi, M. Ghadiri, S.S. Hajimirsadeghi, Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile components from bunium persicum boiss. (black cumin) and mespilus germanica l. (medlar) seeds, J. Food Compos. Anal., 18, 439–446 (2005).

F. Sahena, I.S.M. Zaidul, S. Jinap, A.A. Karim, K.A. Abbas, N.A.N. Norulaini, A.K.M. Omar, Application of supercritical co2 in lipid extraction – a review, J. Food Eng., 95, 240–253 (2009).

R.L. Mendes, A.D. Reis, A.F. Palavra, Supercritical co2 extraction of gamma–linolenic acid and other lipids from arthrospira (spirulina)maxima: Comparison with organic solvent extraction, Food Chem., 99, 57–63 (2006).

B.M. Bhosle, R. Subramanian, New approaches in deacidification of edible oils – a review, J. Food Eng., 69, 481–494 (2005).

L.L. Lai, K.C. Soheili, W.E. Artz, Deacidification of soybean oil using membrane processing and subcritical carbon dioxide, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 85, 189–196 (2008).

N. Al–Darmaki, T. Lu, B. Al–Duri, J.B. Harris, T.L.F. Favre, K. Bhaggan, R.C.D. Santos, Isothermal and temperature gradient supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of squalene from palm fatty acid distillate using compressed carbon dioxide, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 61, 108–114 (2012).

F. Meyer, P. Jaeger, R. Eggers, M. Stamenic, S. Milovanovic, I. Zizovic, Effect of co2 pre–treatment on scco(2) extraction of natural material, Chem. Eng. Process., 56, 37–45 (2012).

T. Fornari, C.F. Torres, F.J. Senorans, G. Reglero, Simulation and optimization of supercritical fluid purification of phytosterol esters, AlChE J., 55, 1023–1029 (2009).

M.F. Mendes, F.L.P. Pessoa, G.V. Coelho, A.M.C. Uller, Recovery of the high aggregated compounds present in the deodorizer distillate of the vegetable oils using supercritical fluids, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 34, 157–162 (2005).

M.F. Mendes, F.L.P. Pessoa, A.M.C. Uller, Optimization of the process of concentration of vitamin e from ddso using supercritical co(2), Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 22, 83–91 (2005).

C.F. Torres, T. Fornari, G. Torrelo, F.J. Senorans, G. Reglero, Production of phytosterol esters from soybean oil deodorizer distillates, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 111, 459–463 (2009).

L. Vazquez, C.F. Torres, T. Fornari, F.J. Senorans, G. Reglero, Recovery of squalene from vegetable oil sources using countercurrent supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 40, 59–66 (2007).

R.C. Pradhan, V. Meda, P.K. Rout, S. Naik, A.K. Dalai, Supercritical co2 extraction of fatty oil from flaxseed and comparison with screw press expression and solvent extraction processes, J. Food Eng., 98, 393–397 (2010).

M. Dong, T.H. Walker, Production and recovery of polyunsaturated fatty acids–added lipids from fermented canola, Bioresour. Technol., 99, 8504– 8506 (2008).

L. Ilic, M. Skerget, M.K. Hrncic, Z. Knez, Phase behavior of sunflower oil and soybean oil in propane and sulphur hexafluoride, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 51, 109–114 (2009).

T.L. Da Silva, E.C. Bernardo, B. Nobre, R.L. Mendes, A. Reis, Extraction of victoria and red globe grape seed oils using supercritical carbon dioxide with and without ethanol, J. Food Lipids, 15, 356–369 (2008).

C.S.G. Kitzberger, A. Smania, R.C. Pedrosa, S.R.S. Ferreira, Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of shiitake (lentinula edodes) extracts obtained by organic solvents and supercritical fluids, J. Food Eng., 80, 631–638 (2007).

J. Yu, J. Wang, C.M. Liu, Z.Q. Liu, Q. Wang, Application of response surface methodology to optimise supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oil from rapeseed (brassica napus l.), Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 47, 1115–1121 (2012).

F.J. Eller, S.C. Cermak, S.L. Taylor, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cuphea seed oil, Ind. Crop. Prod., 33, 554–557 (2011).

S.C. Liu, F. Yang, C.H. Zhang, H.W. Ji, P.Z. Hong, C.J. Deng, Optimization of process parameters for supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of passiflora seed oil by response surface methodology, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 48, 9–14 (2009).

J.Z. Yin, Q.Q. Xu, W. Wei, A.Q. Wanw, Experiments and numerical simulations of supercritical fluid extraction for hippophae rhamnoides l seed oil based on artificial neural networks, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 44, 7420–7427 (2005).

Y. Cao, Y.R. Suo, Extraction of microula sikkimensis seed oil and simultaneous analysis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids by fluorescence detection with reversed–phase hplc, J. Food Compos. Anal., 23, 100–106 (2010).

H.M. Rui, L.Y. Zhang, Z.W. Li, Y.L. Pan, Extraction and characteristics of seed kernel oil from white pitaya, J. Food Eng., 93, 482–486 (2009).

H.L.N. Lau, Y.M. Choo, A.N. Ma, C.H. Chuah, Characterization and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of palm oil (elaeis guineensis), J. Food Lipids, 13, 210–221 (2006).

E. Arnaiz, J. Bernal, M.T. Martin, C. Garcia– Viguera, J.L. Bernal, L. Toribio, Supercritical fluid extraction of lipids from broccoli leaves, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 113, 479–486 (2011).

E. Jenab, K. Rezaei, Z. Emam–Djomeh, Canola oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and a commercial organic solvent (vol 108, pg 488, 2006), Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 108, 794–794 (2006).

M.M. Pederssetti, F. Palu, E.A. da Silva, J.H. Rohling, L. Cardozo, C. Dariva, Extraction of canola seed (brassica napus) oil using compressed propane and supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Food Eng., 102, 189–196 (2011).

C.E. Seal, I. Kranner, H.W. Pritchard, Quantification of seed oil from species with varying oil content using supercritical fluid extraction, Phytochem. Anal, 19, 493–498 (2008).

M. Ismail, A. Mariod, G. Bagalkotkar, H.S. Ling, Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of oils from two cultivars of cantaloupe extracted by supercritical fluid extraction, Grasas Aceites, 61, 37–44 (2010).

I.M.G. Lopes, M.G. Bernardo–Gil, Characterisation of acorn oils extracted by hexane and by supercritical carbon dioxide, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 107, 12–19 (2005).

W.H. He, Y.X. Gao, F. Yuan, Y.N. Bao, F.Z. Liu, J.Q. Dong, Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of gardenia fruit oil and the analysis of functional components, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 87, 1071–1079 (2010).

M.G. Bernardo–Gil, I.M.G. Lopes, M. Casquilho, M.A. Ribeiro, M.M. Esquivel, J. Empis, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of acorn oil, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 40, 344–348 (2007).

K.W. Chan, M. Ismail, Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of hibiscus cannabinus l. Seed oil: A potential solvent–free and high antioxidative edible oil, Food Chem., 114, 970–975 (2009).

A.A. Mariod, B. Matthaus, M. Ismail, Comparison of supercritical fluid and hexane extraction methods in extracting kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus) seed oil lipids, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 88, 931–935 (2011).

S. Mazzutti, S.R.S. Ferreira, C.A.S. Riehl, A. Smania, F.A. Smania, J. Martinez, Supercritical fluid extraction of agaricus brasiliensis: Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 70, 48–56 (2012).

M.G. Bernardo–Gil, M. Casquilho, M.M. Esquivel, M.A. Ribeiro, Supercritical fluid extraction of fig leaf gourd seeds oil: Fatty acids composition and extraction kinetics, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 49, 32–36 (2009).

S. Jokic, Z. Zekovic, S. Vidovic, R. Sudar, I. Nemet, M. Bilic, D. Velic, Supercritical co2 extraction of soybean oil: Process optimisation and triacylglycerol composition, Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 45, 1939–1946 (2010).

A. Rajaei, M. Barzegar, Y. Yamini, Supercritical fluid extraction of tea seed oil and its comparison with solvent extraction, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 220, 401–405 (2005).

N. Mezzomo, B.R. Mileo, M.T. Friedrich, J. Martinez, S.R.S. Ferreira, Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (prunus persica) almond oil: Process yield and extract composition, Bioresour. Technol., 101, 5622–5632 (2010).

Y. Sanchez–Vicente, A. Cabanas, J.A.R. Renuncio, C. Pando, Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (prunus persica) seed oil using carbon dioxide and ethanol, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 49, 167–173 (2009).

G. Nimet, E.A. Da Silva, F. Palu, C. Dariva, L.D. Freitas, A.M. Neto, L. Cardozo, Extraction of sunflower (heliantus annuus l.) oil with supercritical co2 and subcritical propane: Experimental and modeling, Chem. Eng. J., 168, 262–268 (2011).

S.M. Ghoreishi, E. Mardani, H.S. Ghaziaskar, Separation of gamma–linolenic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids from boraginaceae via supercritical co2, J. Sep. Sci., 34, 233–240 (2011).

Q.A. Zhang, X.H. Fan, Z.Q. Zhang, B.S. Zhang, Z.Q. Zhang, X.Y. Jia, Optimization of sc–co2 extraction of oil from almond pretreated with autoclaving, Lwt–Food Sci. Technol., 42, 1530–1537 (2009).

S.G. Ozkal, M.E. Yener, L. Bayindirli, Response surfaces of apricot kernel oil yield in supercritical carbon dioxide, Lwt–Food Sci. Technol., 38, 611–616 (2005).

H.I. Castro–Vargas, L.I. Rodriguez–Varela, F. Parada–Alfonso, Guava (psidium guajava l.) seed oil obtained with a homemade supercritical fluid extraction system using supercritical co2 and co– solvent, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 56, 238–242 (2011).

C.D. Andras, B. Simandi, F. Orsi, C. Lambrou, D. Missopolinou–Tatala, C. Panayiotou, J. Domokos, F. Doleschall, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of okra (hibiscus esculentus l) seeds, J. Sci. Food Agric., 85, 1415–1419 (2005).

M.P. Corso, M.R. Fagundes–Klen, E.A. Silva, L. Cardozo, J.N. Santos, L.S. Freitas, C. Dariva, Extraction of sesame seed (sesamun indicum l.) oil using compressed propane and supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 52, 56–61 (2010).

L.J. Wang, C.L. Weller, V.L. Schlegel, T.P. Carr, S.L. Cuppett, Comparison of supercritical co2 and hexane extraction of lipids from sorghum distillers grains, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 109, 567–574 (2007).

S. Zhang, Y.G. Zu, Y.J. Fu, M. Luo, W. Liu, J. Li, T. Efferth, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from yellow horn (xanthoceras sorbifolia bunge.) and its anti–oxidant activity, Bioresour. Technol., 101, 2537–2544 (2010).

W. Liu, Y.J. Fu, Y.G. Zu, M.H. Tong, N. Wu, X.L. Liu, S. Zhang, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from opuntia dillenii haw. And its antioxidant activity, Food Chem., 114, 334–339 (2009).

T.D. Weinhold, L.F.V. Bresciani, C.W. Tridapalli, R.A. Yunes, H. Hense, S.R.S. Ferreira, Polygala cyparissias oleoresin: Comparing co2 and classical organic solvent extractions, Chem. Eng. Process., 47, 109–117 (2008).

N. Hrabovski, S. Sinadinovic–Fiser, B. Nikolovski, M. Sovilj, O. Borota, Phytosterols in pumpkin seed oil extracted by organic solvents and supercritical co2, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 114, 1204– 1211 (2012).

M.L. Martinez, M.A. Mattea, D.M. Maestri, Pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of walnut oil, J. Food Eng., 88, 399–404 (2008).

L.D.S. Freitas, J.V. De Oliveira, C. Dariva, R.A. Jacques, E.B. Caramao, Extraction of grape seed oil using compressed carbon dioxide and propane: Extraction yields and characterization of free glycerol compounds, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 56, 2558– 2564 (2008).

S.K. Tang, C.R. Qin, H.G. Wang, S.F. Li, S.J. Tian, Study on supercritical extraction of lipids and enrichment of dha from oil–rich microalgae, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 57, 44–49 (2011).

C. Da Porto, D. Decorti, F. Tubaro, Fatty acid composition and oxidation stability of hemp (cannabis sativa l.) seed oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide, Ind. Crop. Prod., 36, 401–404 (2012).

C. Da Porto, D. Voinovich, D. Decorti, A. Natolino, Response surface optimization of hemp seed (cannabis sativa l.) oil yield and oxidation stability by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 68, 45–51 (2012).

A.M.A. Dias, P. Santos, I.J. Seabra, R.N.C. Junior, M.E.M. Braga, H.C. de Sousa, Spilanthol from spilanthes acmella flowers, leaves and stems obtained by selective supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 61, 62–70 (2012).

P. Bhattacharjee, D. Chatterjee, R.S. Singhal, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of squalene from amaranthus paniculatus: Experiments and process characterization, Food Bioprocess Tech., 5, 2506–2521 (2012).

L. Danielski, C. Zetzl, H. Hense, G. Brunner, A process line for the production of raffinated rice oil from rice bran, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 34, 133–141 (2005).

W.H. Chen, C.H. Chen, C.M.J. Chang, B.C. Liau, D. Hsiang, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of triglycerides from aquilaria crassna seeds, Sep. Purif. Technol., 73, 135–141 (2010).

M. Markom, H. Singh, M. Hasan, Supercritical co2 fractionation of crude palm oil, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 20, 45–53 (2001).

W.H. Chen, C.H. Chen, C.M.J. Chang, Y.H. Chiu, D. Hsiang, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of triglycerides from jatropha curcas l. Seeds, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 51, 174–180 (2009).

Y.J. Cheng, C.J. Shieh, Y.C. Wang, S.M. Lai, C.M.J. Chang, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of omega–3 oil compounds from ficus awkeotsang makino achenes, Sep. Purif. Technol., 98, 62–68 (2012).

M.M.R. de Melo, E.L.G. Oliveira, A.J.D. Silvestre, C.M. Silva, Supercritical fluid extraction of triterpenic acids from eucalyptus globulus bark, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 70, 137–145 (2012).

R.M.A. Domingues, E.L.G. Oliveira, C.S.R. Freire, R.M. Couto, P.C. Simoes, C.P. Neto, A.J.D. Silvestre, C.M. Silva, Supercritical fluid extraction of eucalyptus globulus bark–a promising approach for triterpenoid production, Int. J. Mol. Sci., 13, 7648–7662 (2012).

L.D. Freitas, R.A. Jacques, M.F. Richter, A.L. da Silva, E.B. Caramao, Pressurized liquid extraction of vitamin e from brazilian grape seed oil, J. Chromatogr. A, 1200, 80–83 (2008).

V.Y. Ixtaina, A. Vega, S.M. Nolasco, M.C. Tomas, M. Gimeno, E. Barzana, A. Tecante, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oil from mexican chia seed (salvia hispanica l.): Characterization and process optimization, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 55, 192–199 (2010).

J.A.R. Uribe, J.I.N. Perez, H.C. Kauil, G.R. Rubio, C.G. Alcocer, Extraction of oil from chia seeds with supercritical co2, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 56, 174–178 (2011).

L. Leo, L. Rescio, L. Ciurlia, G. Zacheo, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oil and alpha– tocopherol from almond seeds, J. Sci. Food Agric., 85, 2167–2174 (2005).

Y. Kawahito, M. Kondo, S. Machmudah, K. Sibano, M. Sasaki, M. Goto, Supercritical co2 extraction of biological active compounds from loquat seed, Sep. Purif. Technol., 61, 130–135 (2008).

A. Felfoldi–Gava, S. Szarka, B. Simandi, B. Blazics, B. Simon, A. Kery, Supercritical fluid extraction of alnus glutinosa (l.) gaertn, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 61, 55–61 (2012).

M.R. Garcia–Risco, G. Vicente, G. Reglero, T. Fornari, Fractionation of thyme (thymus vulgaris l.) by supercritical fluid extraction and chromatography, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 55, 949–954 (2011).

B. Kinsella, J. O’Mahony, E. Malone, M. Moloney, H. Cantwell, A. Furey, M. Danaher, Current trends in sample preparation for growth promoter and veterinary drug residue analysis, J. Chromatogr. A, 1216, 7977–8015 (2009).

D.M. Pavlovic, S. Babic, A.J.M. Horvat, M. Kastelan–Macan, Sample preparation in analysis of pharmaceuticals, Trac–Trend. Anal. Chem., 26, 1062–1075 (2007).

A.B.A. de Azevedo, P. Mazzafera, R.S. Mohamed, S. de Melo, T.G. Kieckbusch, Extraction of caffeine, chlorogenic acids and lipids from green coffee beans using supercritical carbon dioxide and co–solvents, Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 25, 543–552 (2008).

R.A. Jacques, J.G. Santos, C. Dariva, J.V. Oliveira, E.B. Caramao, Gc/ms characterization of mate tea leaves extracts obtained from high–pressure co2 extraction, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 40, 354–359 (2007).

W.J. Kim, J.D. Kim, J. Kim, S.G. Oh, Y.W. Lee, Selective caffeine removal from green tea using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, J. Food Eng., 89, 303–309 (2008).

W.J. Kim, J.D. Kim, S.G. Oh, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of caffeine from korean green tea, Sep. Sci. Technol., 42, 3229–3242 (2007).

S.M. Lee, H.S. Lee, K.H. Kim, K.O. Kim, Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas, J. Food Sci., 74, S135– S141 (2009).

J. Tello, M. Viguera, L. Calvo, Extraction of caffeine from robusta coffee (coffea canephora var. Robusta) husks using supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 59, 53–60 (2011).

B. Liu, H.L. Jiang, B. Shen, Y.L. Chang, Supercritical fluid extraction of sinomenine from sinomenium acutum (thumb) rehd et wils, J. Chromatogr. A, 1075, 213–215 (2005).

D.C. Soares, C.G. Pereira, M.A.A. Meireles, E.M. Saraiva, Leishmanicidal activity of a supercritical fluid fraction obtained from tabernaemontana catharinensis, Parasitol. Int., 56, 135–139 (2007).

A. Verma, K. Hartonen, M.L. Riekkola, Optimisation of supercritical fluid extraction of indole alkaloids from catharanthus roseus using experimental design methodology–comparison with other extraction techniques, Phytochem. Anal, 19, 52–63 (2008).

E.L. Cardozo, L. Cardozo, O. Ferrarese, E.F. Zanoelo, Selective liquid co2 extraction of purine alkaloids in different ilex paraguariensis progenies grown under environmental influences, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 55, 6835–6841 (2007).

B. Liu, B. Shen, F. Guo, Y.L. Chang, Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of dl–tetrahydropalmatine from rhizome of corydalis yanhusuo wt wang with orthogonal array design, Sep. Purif. Technol., 64, 242–246 (2008).

N.S. Karbalaie, C. Ghotbi, V. Taghikhani, Y. Yamini, Experimental study and modeling of supercritical extraction of nicotine from tabacco leaves, Iranian Journal of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering– International English Edition, 28, 51–59 (2009).

J.A. Xiao, B.Q. Tian, B.J. Xie, E.N. Yang, J. Shi, Z.D. Sun, Supercritical fluid extraction and identification of isoquinoline alkaloids from leaves of nelumbo nucifera gaertn, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 231, 407–414 (2010).

M. Zougagh, A. Rios, M. Valcarcel, Determination of total safranal by in situ acid hydrolysis in supercritical fluid media: Application to the quality control of commercial saffron, Anal. Chim. Acta, 578, 117-121, (2006).

B. Liu, F. Guo, Y.L. Chang, H.L. Jiang, Q.A. Wang, Optimization of extraction of evodiamine and rutaecarpine from fruit of evodia rutaecarpa using modified supercritical co2, J. Chromatogr. A, 1217, 7833-7839, (2010).

S. Glisic, A. Smelcerovic, S. Zuehlke, M. Spiteller, D. Skala, Extraction of hyperforin and adhyperforin from st. John's wort (hypericum perforatum l.) by supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 45, 332-337, (2008).

A. Ruiz-Rodriguez, M.R. Bronze, M.N. da Ponte, Supercritical fluid extraction of tobacco leaves: A preliminary study on the extraction of solanesol, J. Supercrit. Fluids, 45, 171-176, (2008).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20450/mjcce.2013.443

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Miha Oman, Mojca Škerget, Zeljko Knez

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.