Analysis of major, minor and trace elements in surface sediments by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for assessment of possible contamination of Boka Kotorska Bay, Montenegro
Keywords:multi-element analysis, marine sediment, pollution index, geochemical analysis
Boka Kotorska Bay is on the UNESCO’s World Heritage List. There are no published papers related to the surface sediment pollution of the Bay. For the first time, elements were measured in surface sediments at nine locations in the Bay by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (ED-XRF) technique. Si, Fe, Ca, K, Ti, Mn, P, Ba, Cr, Sr, Zn, Rb, Ni, Cu, Pb, As, Sn, Sb, Hg and Cd were quantified in the surface sediments. Sediments were classified as non-polluted or polluted by counting the enrichment factor (EF), metal loading index (MLI) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) based on the elemental background level of the analyzed elements in the literature, or by the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) of USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). Based on USEPA’s SQGs, the surface sediment in the entire Bay can be classified as heavily polluted by As and Cr, and non-polluted by Cd and Hg, and, related to the sites, the surface sediment at the Tivat-Arsenal site was heavily polluted and at the Orahovac site was not polluted at all. The PLI (pollution load index) values for the locations of Tivat-Arsenal and Orahovac are in agreement with the conclusion based on USEPA’s SQGs. The results in this paper will establish an initial view of sediment pollution and the state of the Bay’s environment.
A. Campanelli, A. Bulatović, M. Cabrini, F. Grilli, Z. Kljajić, R. Mosetti, R. Paschini, P. Penna, M. Marini, Spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biological oceanographic properties, phytoplankton, nutrients and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Boka Kotorska Bay (Adriatic Sea). Geophys., 26, 215–228 (2009).
M. Jović, A. Stanković Slavković, L. Beskoski, I. Tomić, S. Degetto, S. Stanković. Mussels as a bio-indicator of the environmental quality of the coastal water of the Boka Kotorska Bay (Montenegro). J. Serb. Chem. Soc., 76, 933–946 (2011).
D. Magas, Natural-geographic characteristics of the Boka Kotorska area as the basis of development. Geoadria., 7/1, 51–81 (2002).
P. Rivaro, C. Ianni, S. Massolo, N. Ruggieri, R. Frache, Heavy metals in Albanian coastal sediments. Toxicol. Environ. Chem., 86, 85–97 (2004).
J. Obhodas, V. Valković, Contamination of the coastal sea sediments by heavy metals. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 68, 807–811 (2010).
T. Dolenc, J. Faganeli, S. Pirc, Major, minor and trace elements in surficial sediments from the open Adriatic Sea: A regional geochemical study. Geol. Croatica, 1, 59–73 (1998).
V. Çelo, D. Babi, B. Baraj, A. Çullaj. An assessment of heavy metal pollution in the sediments along the Albanian Coast. Water Air Soil Pollut., 111, 235–250 (1999).
P. Rivaro, A. Cullaj, R. Frache, C. Lagomarsino, S. Massolo, C. M. De Mattia, N. Ungaro, Heavy metals distribution in suspended particulate matter and sedi-ment collected from Vlora Bay (Albania): A methodological approach for metal pollution evalu-ation. J. Coast. Res., 58, 54–66 (2011).
D. Joksimović, I. Tomić, R. A. Stanković, M. Jović, S. Stanković, Trace metal concentrations in Mediter-ranean blue mussel and surface sediments and evalu¬ation of the mussels’ quality and possible risks of high human consumption. Food Chem., 127, 632–637 (2011).
D. Joksimović, S. Stanković, Accumulation of trace metals in marine organisms of the southeastern Adri-atic coast, Montenegro. J. Serb. Chem. Soc., 77, 105–117 (2012).
H. Pekey, Heavy metals pollution assessment in sediments of the Izmir Bay, Turkey. Environ. Monit. Assess., 123, 219–231 (2006).
S. Caeiro, M. H. Costa, T. B. Ramos, F. Fernandes, N. Silveira, A. Coimbra, G. Medeiros, M. Painho. Assessing heavy metal contamination in Sado Estuary sediment: An index analysis approach. Ecol. Indic., 5, 151–169 (2005).
P. J. Giesy, R. A. Hoke, Freshwater sediment quality criteria: Toxicity bioassessment in sediment: Chemistry and toxicity of in-place pollutants, Lewis Publishers, Ann Arbor, Boston, (1990).
K. K. Turekian, K. H. Wedepohl, Distribution of elements in some major units of the Earth’s crust. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 72, 175–192 (1961).
S. A. Simex, G. R. Helz, Regional geochemistry of trace elements in Chesapeake Bay. Environ. Geol., 3, 315–323 (1981).
E. Esen, F. Kucuksezgin, E. Uluturhan, Assessment of trace metal pollution in surface sediments of Nemrut Bay, Aegean Sea. Environ. Monit. Assess., 160, 257–266 (2010).
D. L. Tomlinson, J. G. Wilson, C. R. Harris, D. W. Jeffrey, Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgol. Mar. Res., 33, 566–575 (1980).
G. Műller. Schwermetalle in den Sediment des Rheins. Veranderungen Seit,79, 778–783 (1979).
A. K. Singh, S. I. Hasnain, D. K. Banerjee, Grain size and geochemical portioning of heavy metals in sediments of the Damodar River – A tributary of the Lower Ganga. Environ. Geol., 39, 90–98 (2003).
B. Tavakoly Sany, A. Salleh, A. H .Sulaiman, A. Mehdinia, G. H. Monazami, Geochemical assessment of heavy metals concentration in surface sediment of West Port, Malaysia. Eng. Techn., 80, 83–87 (2011).
C. P. Priju, A. C. Narayana, Spatial and temporal variability of trace element concentrations in a tropical lagoon, Southwest Coast of India: Environmental Implications. J. Coast. Res., 39, 1053–1057 (2006).
P. S. Harikumar, U. P. Nasir, M. P. Mujeebu Rahma, Distribution of heavy metals in the core sediments of a tropical wetland system. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 6, 225–232 (2009).
L. Zhang, X. Ye, H. Feng, Y. Jing, T. Ouyang, X. Yu, Heavy metal contamination in western Xiamen Bay sediments and its vicinity, China. Mar. Poll. Bull., 54, 974–982 (2007).
P. S. Harikumar, T. S. Jisha, Distribution pattern of trace metal pollutants in the sediments of an urban wetland in the southwest coast of India. JESTECH, 2, 840–850 (2010).
P. K. E. Bam, T. T. Akiti, D. S. Osea, Y. S. Ganyaglo, A. Gibrilla, Multivariate cluster analysis of some major and trace elements distribution in an unsaturated zone profile, Densu River Basin, Ghana. Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 3, 155–167 (2011).
L. Hernandez, A. Probst, J. L. Probst, E. Ulrich, Heavy metal distribution in some French forest soils: Evidence for atmosphere contamination. Sci. Total Environ., 312, 195–210 (2003).
B. Mason, C. Moore, Principles of geochemistry. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, (1982).
M. S. Antao, The crystal structure of a biogenic ara-gonite from the nacre of an ammonite shell. RSC Adv., 2, 526–530 (2012).
How to Cite
The authors agree to the following licence: Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)
- Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
- Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material
- for any purpose, even commercially.
Under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
- NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.