Essential oil composition of indigenous populations of Hypericum perforatum L. from southern Albania
Keywords:Saint John’s wort, GC/FID/MS, wild populations, types of oil
The aim of this study was to investigate the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) isolated from over-ground parts of different populations of Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) (HP) from southern Albania. The EO yield of 11 specimens of indigenous populations of HP ranged from 2.50 ml/kg to 11.00 ml/kg. GC/FID/MS analyses of the EOs revealed a total of 126 identified compounds representing 77.35–88.29% of the oils. Based on the prevalence of principal components, two types of EO were distinguished: pinene-type, which included seven populations with EO rich in α-pinene, and caryophyllene-type, which included four populations with EO rich in trans-(E)-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide. The information obtained can help to assess the potential of the studied Albanian populations for further sustainable wild exploitation to take it into a consideration as a resource of valuable genetic material or for further cultivation and breeding.
aim of this study was to investigate the yield and the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) isolated from over ground parts of different populations of Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) (HP) from southern Albania. The EO yield of 11 specimens of indigenous populations of HP ranged from 2.50 ml/kg to 11.00 ml/kg. GC/FID/MS analyses of the EOs reviled a total of 126 identified compounds representing 77.35-88.29 % of the oils. Based on prevalence of the principal components two types of EO were distinguished: pinene type that include 8 populations with EO reach in α-pinene and caryophyllene type that include 3 populations with EO rich in trans-(E)-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide. Obtained information can help to assess the potential of studied Albanian populations for further sustainable wild exploitation as well as can be taken into a consideration as a resource of valuable genetic material for further cultivation and breeding.
N. K. B. Robson, Hypericum Botany, Hyperi-cum: The Genus Hypericum. Taylor and Francis, New York, USA, 2003.
European Pharmacopoeia, 6th Ed. Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France, 2008.
R. Berghöfer, Analytik und Isolierung pheno-lischer Inhaltsstoffe von Hypericum perforatum L. aus Anbau und Wildvorkommen und Vergleich mit anderen heimischen Hypericum-Arten. Cramer, Stuttgart, Berlin, Germany, 1987.
K. Linde, G. Ramirez, C. D. Mulrow, A. Pauls, W. Weidenhammer, D. Melchart, St. John’s wort for depression: an overview and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Br. Med. J., 313, 253–258 (1996).
S. L. Crockett, N. K. B. Robson, Taxonomy and chemotaxonomy of the genus Hypericum. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sci. Biotech. (in press).
W. E. Müller, St. John’s wort and its active principles in depression and anxiety, Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland, 2005.
American Botanical Council, St. John’s Wort. The Complete German Commission E monographs: Therapeutic guide to herbal medicines, Austin, Texas, 1998, pp. 214–215.
European Medicines Agency, Assessment report on Hypericum perforatum L., herba, London, UK, 2008.
Commission Suisse de Pharmacopée. Pharmacopoea Helvetica. 8th ed. Département fédéral de l’intérieur; Berne, Switzerland, 1997.
J. Reichling, A. Weselerand, R. Saller, A current review of the antimicrobial activity of Hy-pericum perforatum L., Pharmacopsychiatry, 34, 116–118 (2001).
S. Kasper, Hypericum perforatum–A review of clinical studies, Pharmacopsychiatr.y, 34, 51–55 (2001).
I. Lopez-Bazzocchi, J. B. Hudson, G. H. Towers, Antiviral activity of the photoactive plant pigment hypericin, Photochem. Photobiol., 54, 95–98 (1991).
D. Meruelo, G. Lavie, D. Lavie, Therapeutic agents with dramatic antiretroviral activity and little toxicity at effective doses: aromatic poly-cyclic diones hypericin and pseudohypericin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 85, 5230–5234 (1988).
P. Miskovsky, Hypericin - a new antiviral and antitumor photosensitizer: mechanism of action and interaction with biological macromolecules, Curr. Drug Targets, 3, 55–84 (2002).
A. I. Gurevich, V. N. Dobrynin, M. N. Kolosov, S. A. Popravko, I. D. Riabova, Antibiotic hyperforin from Hypericum perforatum L., Antibiotiki, 16, 510–513 (1971).
P. Maisenbacher, K. A. Kovar, Analysis and sta-bility of Hyperici oleum, Planta Med., 58, 351–354 (1992).
R. Melzer, U. Fricke, J. Holzl, Vasoactive properties of procyanidins from Hypericum perforatum L. in isolated porcine coronary arteries, Arzneimittel-Forschung, 41, 481–483 (1991).
P. A. De Smet, W. A. Nolen, St John's wort as an antidepressant, Br. Med. J., 313, 253–258 (1996).
I. Schwob, J. M. Bessiere, J. Viano, Composition of the essential oils of Hypericum perforatum L. from southeastern France, C. R. Biologies, 325, 781–785 (2002).
C. Mathis, G. Ourisson, Chemotaxonomic study of the genus Hypericum. IV. Distribution of sesquiterpenes, monoterpene alcohols, and saturated aldehydes in the essential oils of Hypericum. Phytochemistry, 3, 377–378 (1964).
A. Nahrstedt, V. Butterweck, Biologically active and other chemical constituents of the herb of Hypericum perforatum L., Pharmacopsychiatry, 30 (Suppl.), 129–134 (1997).
L. Stjepanović, M. Ćorović, R. Nikolić, S. Palović, P. Živanović, Essential oil content and number of oil vesicles in Hypericum species from various habitats of Tara mountain, Arhiv za farmaciju, 15, 177–188 (1965).
L. Roth, Hypericum, hypericin: Botanik, Inhalt-stoffe, Wirkung. Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft GmbH, Landsberg, Germany, 1990.
R. Omidbaigi, M. Azizi, Effect of time of harvest on hypericin and essential oil content of Hypericum perforatum L. from Iran, Iran Agric. Res., 19, 155–164 (2000).
R. Lutz, The essential oils of different St. John’s worts, Ätherische Öle, Riechstoffe, Parfümerien Essenzen und Aromen, 2, 137–139 (1952).
Personal communications: Aura Cacia (Urbana, Iowa, USA) and Mountain Rose Herbs (Eugene, Oregon, USA).
R. P. Adams, Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, Allured Publishing Corporation, IL, USA, 2007.
Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System software (AMDIS ver.2.1.), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, MD (USA).
SIMCA 13®, Umetrics AB, Sweden.
B. Gudzić, S. Ðordević, R. Palić, G. Stojanović, Essential oils Hypericum olympicum L. and Hypericum perforatum L., Flavour Frag. J., 16, 201–203 (2001).
A. Hajdari, B. Mustafa, D. Nebija, A. Kashtanjeva, J. Widelski, K. Glowniak, J. Novak, Essential oil composition and variability of Hypericum perforatum L. from wild population in Kosovo, Curr. Issues Pharm. Med. Sci., 27, 51–54 (2014).
D. Mockute, G. Bernotiene, A. Judzentiene, Volatile compounds of the aerial parts of wild St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) plants, Chemija (Vilnius), 14, 108–111 (2003).
S. L. Crockett, Essential Oil and Volatile Components of the Genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae), Nat. Prod. Commun., 5, 1493–1506 (2010).
I. Schindler, J.-M. Bessiere, J. Viano, Compo-sition of the essential oils of Hypericum perforatum L. from southeastern France, C. R. boil., 325, 781–785 (2002).
G. Pintore, M. Chessa, G. Boatto, R. Cerri, M. Usai, B. Tirillini, Essential oil composition of Hypericum perforatum L. var. angustifolium DC Growing Wild in Sardinia (Italy), J. Essent. Oil Res., 17, 533–535 (2005).
P. S. Chatzopoulou, T. V. Koutsos, S. T. Katsiotis, Chemical Composition of the Essen-tial Oils from Cultivated and Wild Grown St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), J. Essent. Oil Res., 2006, 18, 643 (2006).
P. V. Petrakis, M. Couladis, V. Roussis, A method for detecting the biosystematic signifi-cance of the essential oil composition: The case of five Hellenic Hypericum L. species, Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 33, 873–898 (2005).
E. Miraldi, M. Biagi, D. Giachetti, Chemical con-stituents and effects of topical application of Oleum Hyperici on skin sensitivity to stimulated sun exposure, Nat. Prod. Commun., 1, 209–213 (2006).
G. Zdunić, D. Godevac, M. Milenković, D. Vucićević, K. Savikin, N. Menkovic, S. Petrovic, Evaluation of Hypericum perforatum oil extracts for an anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activity in rats, Phytother. Res., 23, 1559–1564 (2009).
How to Cite
The authors agree to the following licence: Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)
- Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
- Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material
- for any purpose, even commercially.
Under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
- NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.