Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of particle PM10 in Tikveš area and their infuence in the environment

Ivan Boev, Trajce Stafilov

Abstract


In this work the results of investigation of the geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of particulate matters below 10 μm (PM10) collected from Tikveš area, Republic of Macedonia, are presented. For that purpose, PM10 samples were collected from the city of Kavadarci and from the area close to the ferronickel smelter plant. As well as the concentration of PM10, the chemical content and mineral phases of dust samples and their relations to some anthropogenic sources are investigated. Determination of the content of various elements was performed by using inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was used for the determination of mineralogical phase content. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that the concentration of PM10 in the vicinity of the ferronickel smelter is much higher than those from the city of Kavadarci. It was found that PM10 samples collected close to the ferronickel smelter plant have a higher content of some elements present in higher concentrations in the ore processed in the ferronickel smelter plant (Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cr) than those from the town of Kavadarci, showing their anthropogenic origin. The investigations performed by applying electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) unequivocally confirmed the results obtained using X-ray diffraction and ICP-MS. Namely, mineral phases present in the particulates were found to be those which are present in the ore used in the process in the metallurgical plant, including chlorite, amphibole, pyroxene, magnetite, chromites, quartz, calcite or plagioklas clay minerals.


Keywords


PM10, Tikveš area, Republic of Macedonia, air pollution, chemical characterization, mineralogical characteristics

Full Text:

PDF

References


R. M. Harrison, Measurement of the concentration of air pollutants, in: Air Pollution and Health, S. T. Holgate, J. M. Samet, H. S. Koren, R. L. Maynard (Eds.), Academic Press, London, 1999.

D. S. Lee, A. Garland, A. A. Fox, Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements in urban areas of the United Kingdom, Atmospheric Environment, 28, 2691–2713 (1994). DOI:10.1016/1352-2310(94)90442-1.

R. Gehrig, B. Buchmann, Characterising seasonal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations based on long-term Swiss monitoring data, Atmospheric Environment, 37, 2571–2580 (2003). DOI:10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00221-8.

T. Godish, Air Quality, 4th edition, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, 2004.

P. A. Baron, K. Willeke, Aerosol fundamentals. In: P. A. Baron, K. Willeke (Eds.), Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques and Applications, 2nd edition, New Jersey, Wiley Interscience, 2005.

D. W. Dockery, C. A. Pope, Acute respiratory effects of particulate air pollution, Annual Review of Public Health, 15, 107–132 (1994).

J. Schwartz, Air pollution and daily mortality: a review and metaanalysis, Environmental Research, 64, 36–52 (1994). DOI:10.1006/enrs.1994.1005.

U. Ackermann-Liebrich, P. Leuenberger, J. Schwartz, C. Schindler, C. Monn, G. Bolognini, J. P. Bongard, O. Brändli, G. Domenighetti, S. Elsasser, L. Grize, W. Karrer, R. Keller, H. Keller-Wossidlo, N. Künzli, B. W. Martin, T. C. Medici, A. P. Perruchoud, M. H. Schöni, J. M. Tschopp, B. Villiger, B. Wüthrich, J. P. Zellweger, E. Zemp, Lung function and long term exposure to air pollutants in Switzerland, American Journal for Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 155, 122–129 (1997). DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm.155.1.9001300.

C. Braun-Fahrländer, J. C. Vuille, F. H. Sennhauser, U. Neu, T. Künzle, L. Grize, M. Gassner, C. Minder, C. Schindler, H. S. Varonier, B. Wüthrich, Respiratory health and long-term exposure to air pollution in Swiss schoolchildren, American Journal for Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 155, 1042–1049 (1997). DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm.155.3.9116984.

C. A. Pope, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. Ito, G. D. Thurston, Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. Journal of American Medical Association, 287(9), 1132–1141 (2002).

C. Hristov, M. Karajovanović, M. Stračkov, Basic Geological Map of SFRJ, sheet Kavadarci, M 1:100 000 (map&interpretor) Federal Geological Survey, Beograd, 1965, 62 pp.

A. Lazarevski, Climate in Macedonia, Kultura, Skopje, 1993.

B. Boev, T. Ivanova, Mineralogy of the magnetites in the Ržanovo Fe-Ni deposit, Republic of Macedonia, Geologica Macedonica, 12, 51–66 (1998).

B. Boev, V. Bermanec, Phase composition of the slag of the Feni Industry metallurgical plant and its impact on the environment, 3rd International Worshop on UNESCO-IGCP Project “Antropogenic Efects on the Human Environments in Tertiary Basins in the Mediterranean”, pp. 57–67, Štip, 2005.

B. Boev, G. Jovanovski, P. Makreski, Minerals from Macedonia. XX. Geological setting, lithologies, and identification of the minerals from Ržanovo Fe-Ni deposit, Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 18, 631–652 (2009). DOI:10.3906/yer-0710-1.

T. Stafilov, R. Šajn, B. Boev, J. Cvetković, D. Mukaetov, M. Andreevski, S. Lepitkova, Distribution of some elements in surface soil over the Kavadarci Re¬gion, Republic of Macedonia, Environmental Earth Sciences, 61, 1515–1530 (2010).

DOI:10.1007/s12665-010-0467-9.

K. Bačeva, T. Stafilov, R. Šajn, C. Tănăselia, S. Ilić Popov, Distribution of chemical elements in attic dust in the vicinity of a ferronickel smelter plant, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 20(9), 2306–2314 (2011).

K. Bačeva, T. Stafilov, R. Šajn, Monitoring of air pollution with heavy metals in the vicinity of ferronickel smelter plant by deposited dust, Macedonian Journal of Ecology and Environment, 1(1–2), 17–24 (2012).

T. Stafilov, R. Šajn, B. Boev, J. Cvetković, D. Mukaetov, M. Andreevski, Geochemical Atlas of Kavadarci and the Environs, Faculty of Science, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, 2008.

I. Boev, O. Spasovski, D. Mirakovski, E. Karakaseva, Geochemistry and origin of particles PM-10 in the area of Tikveš, Republic of Macedonia, Geologica Macedonica, 28(2), 139–148 (2014).

B. Boev, T. Stafilov, K. Bačeva, A. Šorša, I. Boev, Influence of a nickel smelter plant on the mineralogical composition of attic dust in the Tikveš valley, Republic of Macedonia. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20(6), 3781–378 (2013).

(DOI:10.1007/s11356-012-1318-x).

Low on the quality of ambient air, Official Gazzete of the Republic of Macedonia, No. 100, 6.8.2012.

W. Salomons, Environmental impact of metals derived from mining activities: Processes, predictions, preven-tions, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 52, 5–23 (1995). DOI:10.1016/0375-6742(94)00039-E.

S. Dudka, C. D. Adriano, Environmental impacts of metal ore mining and processing: A review, Journal of Environmental Quality, 26, 590-602 (1997).

DOI:10.2134/jeq1997.00472425002600030003x.

I. Boev, T. Šijakova-Ivanova, D. Mirakovski, Scanning electron microprobe characterization of air filters from the Kavadarci town and Tikveš valley, Geologica Macedonica, 27(1), 13-24 (2013).

A. H. Falkovich, E. Ganor, Z. Levin, P. Formenti, Y. Rudich, Chemical and mineralogical analysis of individual mineral dust particles, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 18029–18036 (2001).

DOI: 10.1029/2000JD900430.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20450/mjcce.2016.935

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Ivan Boev, Trajce Stafilov

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.