Dissolved inorganic antimony, selenium and tin species in water samples from various sampling sites of river vardar in Macedonia and Greece

Jožica Majda Serafimovska, Sonja Arpadjan, Trajče Stafilov, Stanko Ilik Popov


A highly effective liquid phase semi-microextraction procedure was applied for determination of
ultra trace levels of dissolved inorganic species of antimony, tin and selenium in river Vardar (from the 2nd
up to 420th km of the river) and its tributaries Crna Reka, Treska, Bregalnica, Pchinja and Lepenec using
electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) for quantification. The concentrations for total
dissolved inorganic antimony were between 6 and 242 ng/l Sb, for Sn(II, IV) – in the range of 2.7–61 ng/l
Sn and for Se(IV, VI) – in the range of 15–75 ng/l Se. The higher oxidation states of antimony and selenium
were found as the predominant form in the studied surface waters.


speciation; antimony; selenium, tin; water; electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

Full Text:



Council of the European Communities. Council Directive 76/464/EEC of 4 May 1976 on pollution caused by certain dangerous substances discharged into the aquatic environment of the Community, Official Journal L 129, 18/05/1976, pp. 23–29.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Drinking Water Regulations and Health Advisories,

Council of the European Union. Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption, Official Journal L 330, 05/12/1998, pp. 32–54.

P. Howe, P. Watts, WHO Guidelines for Drinkingwater Quality, WHO, Geneva, 2005.

Regulation for the Classification of Waters, Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, No.

, 31 March 1999, pp. 1165–1173.

R. Iffland, in: Handbook on Toxicity of Inorganic Compounds, H. Seiler, H. Sigel, (Eds.), Marcel

Dekker, New York, 1988, pp. 67–76.

G. Nordberg, B. Fowler, M. Nordberg, L. Friberg, Tin in Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, 3rd

Edition, Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2007, p. 274.

J.M. Serafimovska, S. Arpadjan, T. Stafilov, Speciation of dissolved inorganic antimony in natural waters using liquid phase semi-microextraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, Microchem. J. 99, 46–50 (2011).

Grizo, Heavy metals in river Vardar, Ecol. Zašt.Život. Sred. 3, 43–49 (1995).

E. Tserovski, S. Arpadjan, I. Karadjova, Chemical modification of volatile elements in organic solvents and extracts by dithiocarbamate and complexes of noble metals in electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy, Spectrochim. Acta 47B, 959–970 (1992).

M.Thompson, S.L.R. Ellison, A. Fajgelj, P. Willets, R. Wood, Harmonised guidelines for the use of recovery information in analytical measurement, IUPAC/ISO/AOAC International/EURACHEM, Technical report, 1996.

L. Barandovski, M. Cekova, M.V. Frontasyeva, S.S. Pavlov, T. Stafilov, E. Steinnes, V. Urumov, Atmospheric deposition of trace element pollutants in Macedonia studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, Environ. Monit. Assess. 138, 107–118 (2008).

T. Stafilov, R. Šajn, Z. Pančevski, B. Boev, M.V. Frontasyeva, L.P. Strelkova, Heavy metal contamination of surface soils around a lead and zinc smelter in the Republic of Macedonia, J. Hazard. Mater. 175, 896–914 (2010).

B. Balabanova, T. Stafilov, K. Bačeva, R. Šajn, Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution with heavy metals in the copper mine vicinity located near Radoviš, Republic of Macedonia, J. Environ.Sci. Health, Part A 45, 1504–15181 (2010).

T. Stafilov, R. Šajn, B. Boev, J. Cvetković, D. Mukaetov, M. Andreevski, S. Lepitkova, Distribution of some elements in surface soil over the Kavadarci region, Republic of Macedonia, Environ.Earth Sci. 61, 1515–1530 (2010).

B. Balabanova, T. Stafilov, R. Šajn, K. Bačeva, Distribution of chemical elements in attic dust as reflection of lithology and anthropogenic influence in the vicinity of copper mine and flotation, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 61, 173–184 (2011).

B. Boev, V. Bermanec, T. Serafimovski, S. Lepitkova, S. Mikulcic, M. Soufek, G. Jovanovski, T. Stafilov, M. Najdoski, Allchar mineral assemblage, Geologica Macedonica 15–16, 1–23 (2001–2002).

A. Demetriades, General groundwater geochemistry of Hellas using bottled water samples, J. Geochem. Explor. 107, 283–298 (2010).

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20450/mjcce.2011.33


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Jožica Majda Serafimovska, Sonja Arpadjan, Trajče Stafilov, Stanko Ilik Popov

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.