Development of a trap for fuel exhaust particulate matter under driving conditions and GC-MS method for their analysis

Dejan Todorović, Zoran Zdravkovski

Abstract


Simple and useful GC/MS method was developed in order to analyze the toluene soluble components in particulate matter from diesel exhaust. Easily adaptable specially designed trap was built which could be mounted on exhaust pipe of different vehicles. It was filled with different materials on which particles were collected. After collection of the particles, the bare trap and different materials were washed and soaked with toluene. In some cases extraction process was speeded up with ultrasonification of the samples for 30 min. Samples were filtered and concentrated to 125‒500 ml and afterwards were directly analyzed by GC/MS. The separated components were identified by Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) using a specialized user-built library. Five of the identified components
[4-methylphenol, 3,3'-dichloro-1,1'-biphenyl, diethyl phthalate, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl) ester and mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid] were found in the European priority lists (Category 1 and Category 2) of endocrine disruptors.


Keywords


vehicle exhaust; diesel motors; particulate trap; GC/MS; endocrine disruptors; European priority list.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Murahashi, T. Sasaki, S. Nakajima, T. Determination of endocrine disruptors in automobile exhaust particulate matter, J. Health Science, 49 (2003), 72–75.

Guillette L. J., Gunderson M. P, Alterations in development of reproductive and endocrine systems of wildlife populations exposed to endocrinedisrupting contaminants. Reproduction, 122 (2001), 857–864.

Japan Environmental Agency, Strategic Programs on Environmental Endocrine Disruptors ’98, Japan Environmental Agency, Tokyo, 1998. www.env.go.jp/ en/chemi/ed/bda_speed98.pdf, accessed November, 2010.

Ono-Ogasawara, M. Smith, T. J., Diesel exhaust particles in the work environment and their analysis, Ind. Health, 42 (2004), 389–399.

Mostert, M. M. R., Levels of Pollutans on the surface of children playgrounds situated in public parks, Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Science, Queensland Univeristy of Technology, Brisbane, 2008, eprints. qut.edu.au/19202/1/Maria_Mostert_Thesis.pdf, accessed November 2010.

Suro, J., Chen, Q., Kennedy, I. M., Cahill, T. A., Kelly, P. B., Characterization of chemical composition and size of diesel exhaust particulate matter by LDITOF/ MS, Symposium on Chemistry of Liquid and Gaseous Fuels, San Francisco, Prepr. Pap.-Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Fuel Chem., 45, 294-298 (2000). www.anl. gov/PCS/acsfuel/preprint%20archive/Files/45_2_ SAN%20FRANCISCO_03-00_0294.pdf, accessed November 2010.

Dobbins, R. A., Hydrocarbon Nanoparticles Formed in Flames and Diesel Engines, Aerosol Sci. and Tech., 41 (2007), 485-496.

EN590:2009(E) Automotive fuels ‒ Diesel ‒ Requirements and test methods, European committe for standardization (CEN), Management centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels Belgium, April 2009.

BS228:2008(E) Automotive fuels ‒ Unleaded petrol ‒ Requirements and test methods gasoline specification standard, European Committe for standardization (CEN), Management centre: Rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium, July 2008.

10. Abul-Milh, M., Westberg, H., Bergvall, C., Elfver, L., Westerholm, R., Quantification and identification of particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines, EMFO project, June 2007.

Stauffer, E., Dolan, J. A., Newman, R., Fire debris analysis, Elsevier Inc., USA, 2008.

Bergvall, C., Elfver, L., Westerholm, R., Evaluation of accelerated solvent extraction of deuterated benzo(a) pyrene and dibenzo(a,i)pyrene from diesel standard reference material 2975, The 21st International Symposium for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (ISPAC 2007), 2007. www.pff.nu/upload/EMFO/ resultat/Delprogram_3_4/Bilaga%206.pdf, accessed November 2010.

Stein, S. E., An integrated method for spectrum extraction and compound identification from GC/MS data, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, 1999, chemdata.nist.gov/mass-spc/amdis/docs/method. pdf, accessed March 2011.

Meng, C.-K., Szelewski, M., Can “deconvolution” improve GC/MS detectability? Agilent Technologies Inc.,Wilmington, USA, 2010, accessed November 2010.

Endocrine disruptors: Study on gathering information on 435 substances with insufficient data, RPS BKH Consultants B.V., Netherlands, 2002.ec.europa.eu/ environment/endocrine/documents/bkh_report.pdf, accessed November 2010.

Stein, S. E., Scott, D. R., Optimization and testing of mass spectral library search algorithms for compound identification, NIST, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spec., 5 (1994), 859–866.

Marjanović, N. J., Kravić, S. Ž., Suturović, Z. J., Švarc-Gajić, J. V., Determination of sensitivity limit in quantative analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by GC-MS, Acta Per.Technol., 35 (2004), 111–119. http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/ doi/1450-7188/2004/1450-71880435111M.pdf.

Binkley, J., Libarondi, M., Comparing the Capabilities of Time-of-Flight and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers, Spectroscopy, Sol. Mat. Anal., July, 2010, http://spectroscopyonline.findanalytichem. com/spectroscopy/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=677 324&sk=&date=&pageID=2, accessed November 2010.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20450/mjcce.2011.74

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Dejan Todorović, Zoran Zdravkovski

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.