Phenolic fingerprint of Macedonian propolis


  • Jasmina Petreska Stanoeva Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, 1000 Skopje
  • Cvetan Stojchevski Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, R.N. Macedonia
  • Vassya Bankova Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • Marina Stefova Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, R.N. Macedonia



propolis, poplar type, HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS, phenolic acids, flavonoids, economic potential


Propolis is a chemically complex resinous material collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from tree buds and resins, comprising plant exudates, secreted substances from bee metabolism, pollen and waxes. Its chemical composition depends strongly on the plant sources available around the beehive, which have a direct impact оn the quality and bioactivity of the propolis.

In this study, the composition of phenolic compounds in 13 Macedonian propolis extracts was investigated by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Overall, the UV spectra, the MS and MS/MS data allowed the identification of 36 compounds.

The major constituents of propolis were phenolic acids (caffeic and coumaric) and their esters (methyl, (iso)prenyl, benzyl, phenylethyl, cinnamyl), flavonols (quercetin, kaemferol), flavones (chrysin, apigenin, acacetin), flavanonols (pinobanksin) flavanones (pinocembrin naringenin, hesperetin, pinostrobin) and their methylated/esterified derivatives.

The results reveal that Macedonian propolis contains a diversity of phenolic compounds confirming that it is a poplar type of propolis with higher phenolic content (ranging from 43.75–637.94 mg/g) than reported in previous studies in the region and beyond in Europe (< 80 mg/g). This suggests the potential significance of Macedonian propolis as a valuable source of bioactive compounds with health benefits as well as for unlocking its economic potential for industry and beekeepers.


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Additional Files


2024-05-10 — Updated on 2024-05-22


How to Cite

Petreska Stanoeva, J., Stojchevski, C. ., Bankova, V. ., & Stefova, M. (2024). Phenolic fingerprint of Macedonian propolis . Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 43(1), 87–98. (Original work published May 10, 2024)



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