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Label-free voltammetric screening of human blood serum


  • Pavlinka Kokoskarova Faculty of Medical Sciences, Goce Delcev University, Stip, North Macedonia
  • Tatjana Ruskovska Faculty of Medical Sciences, Goce Delcev University, Stip, North Macedonia
  • Mariola Brycht University of Lodz, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Lodz, Poland
  • Slawomira Skrzypek University of Lodz, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Lodz, Poland
  • Valentin Mirčeski University of Lodz, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Lodz, Poland; Institute of Chemistry, Ss. Cyril And Methodius University in Skopje, Skopje, Macedonia



human blood serum, square-wave voltammetry, label-free biosensor, uric acid, bilirubin, albumin


The current study presents a comprehensive voltammetric investigation into the direct analysis of untreated human blood serum in a phosphate buffer at an unmodified, graphite electrode by means of voltammetry. By employing advanced square-wave voltammetry at an edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (EPPGE), the basic principles were established for developing a sensitive, fast, simple, and label-free method for the simultaneous screening of uric acid, bilirubin, and albumin analytes that are present in human blood serum and are quite essential for rapid medical diagnostics. The electrochemical protocol utilizes the specific structural patterns of the EPPGE, the inherent redox and adsorption properties of the analysed analytes, and the sensitivity and rapidity of the employed advanced voltammetric technique.

The methodology has been successfully applied for quantification of the considered analytes in a series of samples of human blood serum and was compared with the standard methods used in a clinical biochemical laboratory. This novel method represents a significant advancement towards the development of point-of-care devices aimed at swiftly and simultaneously quantifying uric acid, bilirubin, and albumin levels in human serum.


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2024-05-09 — Updated on 2024-05-19


How to Cite

Kokoskarova, P., Ruskovska, T., Brycht, M., Skrzypek, S., & Mirčeski, V. (2024). Label-free voltammetric screening of human blood serum. Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 43(1), 49–59. (Original work published May 9, 2024)




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